Euroasian journal of hepato-gastroenterology

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2023 | January-June | Volume 13 | Issue 1

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EDITORIAL

Sheikh Mohammad Fazle Akbar, Mamun Al Mahtab

Memories of Professor HASAN Ozkan: Blowing in the Wind

[Year:2023] [Month:January-June] [Volume:13] [Number:1] [Pages:1] [Pages No:iv - iv]

   DOI: 10.5005/ejohg-13-1-iv  |  Open Access | 

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Original Article

Kiran Bajaj, Taha Yaseen, Abbas Ali Tasneem, Syed Mudassir Laeeq, Ali Khalid, Nasir Hasan Luck, Nasir Mehmood, Sandeep Kumar, Muhammad Qaiser Panezai, Danish Kumar, Nadir Sattar, Nida Rasool, Reeaa Kumari

Role of Endoscopic Ultrasound in Predicting Solid Pancreatic Lesions Using Strain Ratio and Elastography

[Year:2023] [Month:January-June] [Volume:13] [Number:1] [Pages:4] [Pages No:1 - 4]

Keywords: Elastography, Endoscopic ultrasound, Solid pancreatic lesions, Strain ratio

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10018-1386  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Background: Despite advancement in imaging techniques, the diagnosis of solid pancreatic lesions (SPLs) remains challenging. The latest advancement in elastography permits the quantitative measurements of the average elasticity of a lesion. Therefore, our main aim of this study was to determine the utility of endoscopic ultrasound-guided elastography (EUS-EG) and strain ratio (EUS-SR) in predicting SPLs. Materials and methods: This cross-sectional study was performed at the Department of Hepatogastroenterology, Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation. All patients with radiological diagnosis of SPLs underwent EUS-EG, followed by strain ratio (SR) measurement and targeted pancreatic fine needle lesion biopsy (FNB). Area under the receiver operating curve (AUROC) was obtained for SR and combined elastography and SR and at an optimal cutoff, diagnostic accuracy was obtained in predicting the nature of SPLs. Results: A total of 52 patients were included in this study. Out of them, 32 (61.5%) patients were males while 20 (38.5%) were females. The mean age was 50.8 ± 12.5 years. Twenty-four (46.2%) patients had malignant pancreatic lesions. Among malignant lesions, the most common etiology was pancreatic adenocarcinoma seen in 18 (34.6%) patients. Out of 28 (53.8%) patients with benign lesions, 14 (26.9%) patients had inflammatory disease. Area under the receiver operating curve was obtained for both SR alone and SR combined with elastography score in differentiating benign from malignant SPLs which was 0.832 (p-value < 0.001) for SR alone and a slightly higher for combined SR with elastography (AUROC-0.839) (p-value < 0.001). At an optimal cutoff of SR of >17, the sensitivity was 94.8% and the diagnostic accuracy was 74% in predicting SPLs. While, when SR and elastography were combined together, the sensitivity increased to 96% with a diagnostic accuracy of 75%. Conclusion: Combined EUS-EG and SR were accurate in diagnosing malignant pancreatic lesions with a diagnostic accuracy of 75% providing additional diagnostics information before biopsy. However, multicentric studies with larger sample sizes are required for the validation of our results to determine the utility and diagnostic accuracy of EUS-SR in defining the characteristic of pancreatic lesions.

471

Original Article

Tuğba Ocak, Macit Gülten

Retrospective Investigation of Factors Affecting Mortality in Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis

[Year:2023] [Month:January-June] [Volume:13] [Number:1] [Pages:5] [Pages No:5 - 9]

Keywords: Cirrhosis, Mortality, Peritonitis

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10018-1387  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Background: Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is an important reason for mortality in cirrhosis. This study aimed to identify the factors associated with mortality in SBP. Materials and methods: A total of 69 patients with cirrhosis and 74 with SBP attacks that occurred in this group were assessed. Demographic data, symptoms at admission, comorbidities, laboratory parameters, treatment protocols, causes of cirrhosis, scoring characteristics, cirrhosis complications, and mortality were analyzed. Results: Model for end-stage liver disease (MELD; p = 0.001), sodium-MELD (p = 0.001), and Child–Pugh–Turcotte (CTP) (p < 0.001) scores were correlated with mortality in patients with SBP episodes. Hepatorenal syndrome (p = 0.001) and esophageal variceal bleeding (p < 0.001) related to mortality. Serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (p = 0.007), serum leukocyte (p = 0.017), and serum hemoglobin (p = 0.010) values had a statistically significant effect on mortality in multivariate regression analysis. Discussion: The mortality rate can be reduced by identifying factors influencing death in patients with SBP episodes.

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Original Article

Akanksha Dubey, Sangram Singh Patel, Anjali Yadav

Multifactorial Analysis of Biliary Infection in Patients with Hepato-pancreatico-biliary and Associated Intraabdominal Malignancies Admitted to a Teaching Hospital in Northern India

[Year:2023] [Month:January-June] [Volume:13] [Number:1] [Pages:8] [Pages No:10 - 17]

Keywords: Antibiotic prophylaxis, Bile, Biliary tract, Cholelithiasis, Chronic kidney disease

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10018-1389  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Background: Blockage of the biliary tract is commonly caused by malignant tumors leading to deranged liver function, responsible for poor prognosis and a high rate of bacteriobilia leading to mortality. Material and methods: We collected retrospective data from the hospital information system and laboratory registers in our department from 2021 to 2022 to evaluate biliary infections in patients with hepato-pancreatico-biliary and associated intraabdominal malignancies. Result: A total of 118 (118/234, 50.43%) patients’ bile samples were estimated in this study. Patients’ average age was 53.02 ± 13.49 years, with more patients below the age of 65 years among those with infected bile samples. Eight patients were infected by 102 pathogenic microorganisms. The most common pathogenic microorganism responsible for biliary infection in patients with abdominal malignancies was Escherichia coli (38/102, 37.25%) followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (21/102, 20.59%) and Enterococcus spp. (18/102, 17.65%). Underlying comorbidities like diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism, hypoproteinemia, chronic liver disease, immunosuppression, chronic kidney disease, increased hospital stay, admission to the intensive care unit (ICU), and presence of percutaneous transhepatic biliary drain were statistically significant risk factors for isolation of multidrug-resistant pathogenic bacteria. Conclusion: Our study guided physicians in identifying the associated demographic characteristics, risk factors, and the spectrum of pathogens responsible for bacteriobilia in abdominal cancer patients along with the antibiotic resistance pattern among these isolates and better selection of antibiotics and antibiotic prophylaxis for patients at risk of developing biliary tract infections with multidrug-resistant pathogens.

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REVIEW ARTICLE

Suprabhat Giri, Kumar Avijeet Dash, Jijo Varghese, Shivaraj Afzalpurkar

The Role of Gastroenterologists in Preoperative Assessment and Management of Prospective Renal Transplantation Candidates

[Year:2023] [Month:January-June] [Volume:13] [Number:1] [Pages:8] [Pages No:18 - 25]

Keywords: Cholelithiasis, Hepatitis B virus, Hepatitis C virus, Inflammatory bowel disease, Renal transplant

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10018-1390  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Renal transplant is the most common organ transplant worldwide, accounting for 65% of the total number of transplants. End-stage renal disease (ESRD) often has multiple significant comorbidities. Among the gastrointestinal (GI) disorders, peptic ulcer disease (PUD), cholelithiasis, and colon and liver diseases increase the risk of posttransplant morbidity. Potential renal transplantation (RT) candidates need a multidisciplinary assessment of coexisting illnesses, which may affect the perioperative risk and survival after transplantation. Successful outcome of RT depends on careful selection of the recipients by a thorough medical evaluation and screening. This review summarizes the role of gastroenterologists and hepatologists in preoperative assessment and management of renal transplant recipients.

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CASE REPORT

Tarana Gupta

Acute Hepatitis in an Immunosuppressed Patient: A Dilemma

[Year:2023] [Month:January-June] [Volume:13] [Number:1] [Pages:2] [Pages No:26 - 27]

Keywords: Acute hepatitis, Carcinoma buccal mucosa, Cisplatin, Occult hepatitis B, Occult hepatitis C

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10018-1368  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Acute hepatitis in patients on chemotherapy has always been challenging. Demystifying the truth becomes essential to continue chemotherapy. We present a case of carcinoma buccal mucosa who developed acute hepatitis following a single dose of cisplatin and radiotherapy. In the background of a history of chronic alcoholism, and alcohol abstinence of more than 3 months, acute alcoholic hepatitis was unlikely. Though he had occult hepatitis B with HBsAg negative and positive IgG anti-HBc antibody status, however, with undetectable HBV DNA PCR quantitative, hepatitis B was unlikely to be the cause of acute hepatitis. With all viral markers including atypical viruses and autoimmune work-up being negative, it was a real-time challenge to find the exact cause.

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CASE REPORT

Kaustav Jain

Intraductal Papillary Neoplasm of the Bile Duct: Radiological Diagnosis of a Rare Entity: Case Series

[Year:2023] [Month:January-June] [Volume:13] [Number:1] [Pages:4] [Pages No:28 - 31]

Keywords: Biliary papillomatosis, Cholangiocarcinoma, Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm, Intraductal papillary neoplasm of bile duct

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10018-1385  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Background: Intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct (IPNB) is a rare bile duct neoplasm characterized by an intraluminal papillary growth pattern in bile ducts and is considered a biliary counterpart of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the pancreas. Case description: We report here two cases. (1) A case of a 34-year-old woman who presented with complaints of pain in the abdomen, jaundice, and pruritus. Further radiological investigations revealed the possibility of an IPNB, which was confirmed on histopathology. (2) A case of a 61-year-old man who was a known case of Barrett's esophagus and presented with complaints of right upper abdomen and jaundice. Radiological investigations and histopathology further confirmed the diagnosis of an IPNB involving the extrahepatic bile ducts. The purpose of this article is to highlight the role of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging in reaching this challenging diagnosis. Conclusion: Although the diagnosis is not straightforward, imaging plays a great role in raising the possibility of an IPNB. The correct preoperative diagnosis is necessary for accurate surgical planning and resection.

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CASE REPORT

Siva Krishna Sirasapalli, Kuppusamy Senthamizhselvan, Pazhanivel Mohan

Rare Association of Killian-Jamieson Diverticulum and Peptic Stricture of the Esophagus: Is It Causal or Casual?

[Year:2023] [Month:January-June] [Volume:13] [Number:1] [Pages:4] [Pages No:32 - 35]

Keywords: Case report, Diverticulum, Endoscopy, Esophageal stricture

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10018-1388  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Killian-Jamieson diverticulum (KJD) is a rare esophageal diverticulum that arises from the anterolateral wall of the proximal cervical esophagus in the Killian-Jamieson space. Although rare presentations include dysphagia, globus sensation, or a suspected thyroid nodule, it is often asymptomatic. Treatment is indicated only in symptomatic cases. We report a 55-year-old female who had long-standing heartburn and presents now with dysphagia, weight loss, and anemia. Imaging and upper endoscopy revealed peptic stricture and an associated KJD. She underwent serial endoscopic dilatation of the peptic stricture and was symptomatically better afterwards. She is currently doing well on follow-up.

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CASE REPORT

Mirza Saeed, Ahmed Taymour Algahiny, Omar Samir Mohamed Megahed Saleh Elmitwalli, Mirit Mohamed Mohamed Refaat Mohamed Ahmed, Isam Mazin Juma

An Analysis of the Literature and a Case Study on the Successful Surgical Treatment of a Crohn's Patient Using a Kono-S Anastomosis

[Year:2023] [Month:January-June] [Volume:13] [Number:1] [Pages:4] [Pages No:36 - 39]

Keywords: Anastomosis, Case report, Crohn's disease, Inflammatory bowel disease, Intestinal obstruction, Stricture

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10018-1392  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Background: Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease affecting the gastrointestinal tract. Treatment involves immunosuppression, and surgical intervention is sometimes necessary for patients who do not respond to medical treatment. However, recurrence of the disease is a common complication after surgery. Aim: This case report focuses on a patient with CD who underwent ileocecal resection with Kono-S anastomosis, a surgical technique aimed at reducing recurrence rates. Case description: A 43-year-old male with a known history of CD for 13 years presented with recurring moderate-to-severe lower abdominal pain associated with belching, nausea, subjective fever, and sweats. The patient was on infliximab and azathioprine. Investigations confirmed irregular skip mural thickening of ileal loops with significant luminal narrowing along with stenotic fibrostrictures of the ileum, and mild bilateral sacroiliitis. The patient was treated surgically with an ileocecal resection and a Kono-S anastomosis operation. This case report highlights the advantages and disadvantages of the Kono-S anastomosis technique in treating patients with recurrent CD. Clinical significance: Kono-S anastomosis demonstrates a relative safety profile and carries several potential benefits. However, its wider adoption is limited due to insufficient familiarity among surgeons and the possibility of complications. Nevertheless, embracing Kono-S as the standard anastomosis method holds the promise of significant advantages for individuals with CD. Conclusion: This case report highlights the potential benefits of Kono-S anastomosis in reducing CD recurrence and provides valuable insights for further research and clinical practice.

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LETTER TO THE EDITOR

Vincent Zimmer

The Hooking Technique for Retrograde Freehand Access during Direct Cholangioscopy (with Video)

[Year:2023] [Month:January-June] [Volume:13] [Number:1] [Pages:1] [Pages No:40 - 40]

Keywords: Biliary stone disease, Cholangioscopy, Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10018-1358  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

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COMMENTARY

Deepika Kedia, Lubna Kamani, Most Rokshana Begum, Aabha Nagral, Mamun Al Mahtab, Shivaram Prasad Singh

Journey of Women in Gastroenterology in South Asian Countries: From Training to Leadership

[Year:2023] [Month:January-June] [Volume:13] [Number:1] [Pages:3] [Pages No:41 - 43]

Keywords: Gastroenterology training, Leadership, Women in gastroenterology, South Asia, South Asian Association for the Study of Liver

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10018-1391  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Women in gastroenterology are underrepresented all over the world and in South Asia, the numbers are even fewer. Women doctors in South Asia have their unique set of problems that they have to deal with. They are trained well and are keen to publish but are not considered good enough. They do not get the same opportunities as their male colleagues. There is more expectation from women doctors to look after their families and children. We can correct this discrepancy by giving more opportunities, arranging flexible training, deserving promotions, leadership roles, equal pay, and research mentors for women doctors in gastroenterology in South Asia, and educating our society to treat women doctors, at par with men.

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