Euroasian journal of hepato-gastroenterology

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2020 | January-June | Volume 10 | Issue 1

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The COVID-19 Era and the Journal

[Year:2020] [Month:January-June] [Volume:10] [Number:1] [Pages:1] [Pages No:00 - 00]

   DOI: 10.5005/ejohg-10-1-iv  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Original Article

Debakanta Mishra, Kaibalya R Dash, Chittaranjan Khatua, Subhendu Panigrahi, Prasanta K Parida, Sambit K Behera, Rakesh K Barik, Subhasis Pradhan, Saroj K Sahu, Bhaskar Thakur

A Study on the Temporal Trends in the Etiology of Cirrhosis of Liver in Coastal Eastern Odisha

[Year:2020] [Month:January-June] [Volume:10] [Number:1] [Pages:6] [Pages No:1 - 6]

Keywords: Alcohol, Cirrhosis of liver, Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, Viral hepatitis

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10018-1312  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Background: The etiology of cirrhosis of liver is known to change with time due to various factors including awareness, preventive interventions, and lifestyle changes in society. However, there is scarce Indian data available about temporal trends in etiology of cirrhosis of liver. Hence, the aim of this study was to study the temporal trends in the etiology of cirrhosis of liver. Materials and methods: This is a retrospective study conducted in the Department of Gastroenterology, Srirama Chandra Bhanja Medical College and Hospital, Cuttack, from January 2005 to December 2017. Data were collected from hospital records of all patients admitted to the Gastroenterology unit. A Poisson regression model was used to compare the hospitalization rate for different etiologies of cirrhosis of liver. All data were analyzed using Stata version 5.1 software. Results: A total of 4,331 hospitalized patients of cirrhosis of liver were included in the analysis, of whom 2,742 (63.3%) had alcohol-related cirrhosis, 858 (19.8%) had viral hepatitis-related cirrhosis, and 731 (16.9%) had cirrhosis of liver due to nonalcohol and nonviral causes. The proportion of alcohol-related cirrhosis was increased by 26% from 2005 to 2017 (RR 1.26, p for trend <0.001). Though there were minimal ups and downs observed in the admission rate of viral hepatitis-related liver cirrhosis during later years, this was remarkably reduced by 73% (RR 0.27, p for trend <0.001) in the year 2017 at the end of the study. Similarly, the proportion of cirrhosis due to nonalcohol and nonviral causes decreased by 26% (RR 0.74, p for trend <0.001) by 2017. Conclusion: Alcohol is the most common cause of cirrhosis of liver and the burden of alcohol-related cirrhosis is significantly increasing in comparison to other causes including viral infection, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and autoimmune hepatitis.


Original Article

Hari K Aggarwal, Sandeep Goyal

Prediction of Cirrhosis in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C by Genotype 3

[Year:2020] [Month:January-June] [Volume:10] [Number:1] [Pages:4] [Pages No:7 - 10]

Keywords: Chronic hepatitis C, Cirrhosis, Fibrosis, Genotype, Transient elastography

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10018-1311  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Background: Genotype 3 increases fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C (CHC). Aim: To evaluate the effect of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype on prevalence and severity of liver disease in CHC. Materials and methods: Nine hundred and forty-nine individuals with positive anti-HCV from June 2016 to May 2017 were enrolled in the study. We compared biochemical and hematological parameters, HCV RNA load, transient elastography, and ultrasound, in genotype 3 and nongenotype 3 patients. Cirrhosis was diagnosed in patients with liver stiffness measurement (LSM) ≥13 kPa. Results: Out of 835 CHC patients, overall, genotype 3 had higher LSM (11.3 vs 7.62, p = 0.01), higher aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (88.4 vs 68.6, p = 0.02), and low platelets (228.4 vs 261, p = 0.03) with higher prevalence of cirrhosis (115/415 vs 25/245, p = 0.01) than nongenotype 3. However, decompensation rates were not significantly different between two groups (32/115 vs 7/25, p = 0.98). The subgroup analysis revealed that cirrhotic genotype 3 had advanced age (50 vs 35, p < 0.01), male predominance, and higher AST (74.4 vs 57, p = 0.01) as compared to noncirrhotic genotype 3 patients. On multivariate analysis, age and AST values were higher in cirrhotic than noncirrhotic genotype 3 patients. Conclusion: Genotype 3 patients have higher prevalence of cirrhosis and fibrosis compared to nongenotype 3 patients; however, decompensation was not different between two groups.


Original Article

Arti S Mitra, Unmed Chandak, Kaushal K Kulkarni, Nilesh Nagdive, Rajendra Saoji

Stapled vs Conventional Hand-sewn Gastrointestinal Anastomosis during Infancy: A Prospective Comparative Study from Central India

[Year:2020] [Month:January-June] [Volume:10] [Number:1] [Pages:5] [Pages No:11 - 15]

Keywords: Anastomosis, Gastrointestinal, Hand-sewn, Infants, Neonates, Stapled

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10018-1308  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Background: The creation of a joint between two bowel ends in newborns and infants is one of the core surgical procedures in pediatric surgery. For a proper and perfect gastrointestinal (GI) anastomosis, the factors to be considered are intraoperative duration, restoration of normal GI function, effective hemostasis, reduction of tissue damage, and prevention of postoperative mortality and morbidity. The safety and efficacy of stapled GI tract anastomosis in adults have been extensively documented; however, available literature on the same is limited for infants. Materials and methods: Fifty-six patients were divided into two groups—stapled group and hand-sewn group. Patients operated on both emergency and elective basis were included in the study. Hand-sewn anastomosis was done by either end-to-end single-layer or double-layer anastomosis. Suture material used for the anastomosis was Vicryl 3-0 or Vicryl 4-0. Stapled anastomosis was done by 55 mm linear cutting GI stapler with side-to-side anastomosis. Results: The present study included a total of 56 patients; there were 28 neonates and 28 infants; 37 of them were males. The most common clinical presentations were vomiting, abdominal distention, refusal to feed, and lethargy. The intraoperative duration in stapled GI anastomosis was less when compared to hand-sewn anastomosis, so was the return of bowel activity and consequently early initiation of feeds and shorter hospital stay. Conclusion: The present study favors stapled over hand-sewn GI anastomosis in infancy in view of decreased intraoperative duration, reduced blood loss, early return of peristalsis, early initiation of feeds, and shorter duration of hospital stay. However, a small number of patients and lack of matching are the shortcomings of this study.


Original Article

Tsegmed Sambuu, Nasanjargal Tumurbat, Bayar Davaa, Bolor-Erdene Tudev

Incidence of Stomach and Esophageal Cancers in Mongolia: Data from 2009 to 2018

[Year:2020] [Month:January-June] [Volume:10] [Number:1] [Pages:6] [Pages No:16 - 21]

Keywords: Age-standardized rate, Cancer epidemiology, Esophageal cancer, Gastric cancer, Mongolia

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10018-1313  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Introduction: Digestive organ cancer is a major public health issue both in Asia and in Mongolia. The most prevalent cancer-related deaths in Mongolia are registered as caused by the stomach, esophagus, and liver. There is a lack of study which investigated the accurate incidence of digestive organ cancer nationwide. Purpose: We aimed to investigate the incidence of stomach and esophageal cancers in Mongolian population. Materials and methods: Epidemiologic data were collected between 2009 and 2018 through the oncology departments of hospitals and medical centers in all provinces, soums (the smallest unit of provinces), and major districts of the capital city. We used appropriate statistical methods in SPSS software. Results: The incidence of esophageal cancer in last 10 years (2009–2018) was 10.09 in 100,000 populations and the highest incidence was registered in Uvs (38.13), Bayan-Ulgii (24.15), and Zavkhan (18.18) provinces, respectively. The incidence of stomach cancer was 20.33 in 100,000 populations and the highest incidences were registered in Uvs (53.01), Khovd (46.02), and Darkhan-Uul (40.50) provinces, respectively. Conclusion: The incidences of these cancers have increased last 10 years in some provinces. Stomach and esophageal cancers incidence in Mongolia is considerably higher compared to the other Asian countries. The nationwide targeted prevention program is needed.


Original Article

Simay Dal Çavuşoğlu, Mutlu Doğanay, Birkan Birben, Gökhan Akkurt, Özgur Akgul, Mehmet Keşkek

Management of Bile Duct Injuries: A 6-year Experience in a High Volume Referral Center

[Year:2020] [Month:January-June] [Volume:10] [Number:1] [Pages:5] [Pages No:22 - 26]

Keywords: Bile duct, Cholecystectomy, Endoscopy

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10018-1309  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Objectives: The aim of our study was to determine operative and nonoperative treatments performed in bile duct injuries and the effect of a multidisciplinary approach on the treatment. Background: Bile duct injuries may lead to morbidities such as biliary leakage, peritonitis, and mortality. Materials and methods: A total of 83 patients with biliary complications (37 patients with iatrogenic bile duct injury referred to our clinic from other centers were also included in this study) were evaluated. Results: Of the operated 6,663 patients, iatrogenic bile duct injury occurred in 46 (0.69%) of these patients. The most common type of injury was Strasberg type A injury, which was found in 48 (57.83%) patients. The time interval between the diagnosis and initiation of treatment after the operation was shorter in patients with an inserted cavity drainage catheter (p < 0.05). Of the patients with bile duct injury, 32.6% received surgical and 62.6% endoscopic treatment, while 4.8% were followed-up without intervention. The rate of mortality was found to be 2.4%. Conclusion: Time interval to diagnosis is of great importance for management of the patients.


Original Article

Muhammad AR Bhuyan, Eshita Ashab, Md Jahirul Haque, Syed Md M Hoque, AKM Faizul Huq, Md Atikul Islam, Nuzhat Choudhury, Reema A Alia, Musarrat Mahtab, Md Sakirul I Khan, Sheikh MF Akbar

Treatment of COVID-19 Patients at a Medical College Hospital in Bangladesh

[Year:2020] [Month:January-June] [Volume:10] [Number:1] [Pages:4] [Pages No:27 - 30]

Keywords: Bangladesh, Coronavirus disease 2019, Therapy

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10018-1317  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Background and aim: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has induced a sense of panic around the world as the disease is highly contagious and has been spreading in full swing during last 5 months causing millions of COVID-19 patients and hundreds of thousands of deaths. Bangladesh, a country of 170 million people, is not an exception regarding COVID-19; it has reported several thousand COVID-19 patients with several hundred of deaths. This observational study has been planned to assess the scope and limitation of management strategy against COVID-19 patients in a medical college hospital of Bangladesh with available drugs in a real-life situation. Materials and methods: All patients in this cohort (N: 33) were positive for SARS-CoV-2 by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and they attended the hospital with variable presenting symptoms those ranged from cough and fever to respiratory distress and pneumonia. As per the protocol, the patients were regularly evaluated for several parameters of COVID-19-related pathology. Before discharge, they were checked for SARS-CoV-2 for 2 consecutive times. The management strategy included standard of care (SoC) and administration of hydroxychloroquine and azythromycin, available in Bangladesh. Results: Out of total 33 patients, 1 patient died at day 4 day after admission. Two patients developed severe complications and were referred to tertiary hospital in Dhaka (2 and 3 days after admission), the capital of Bangladesh, where they recovered and were discharged from hospital after being SARS-CoV-2 negative. The rest 30 patients were discharged from the medical college hospital after being negative for SARS-CoV-2 in two subsequent assessments and improvement of their COVID-related symptoms. The average hospital stay of these patients was 14.5 days with a range of 10–24 days. Conclusion: It seems that most of the COVID-19 patients may be adequately managed by standard of care management with drug support. However, early diagnosis and hospitalization with adequate care may be important variables for better survival. These factors may be properly ensured if the patient burden remains at a palatable level in forthcoming days in Bangladesh.


Original Article

AKM Faizul Huq, Md Fashiur Rahman, Md Azizul Islam, Syed A Iqbal, Azizur Rahman, Syed Abul Hassan Md Abdullah, Sheikh MF Akbar

Real-life Management Strategy of COVID-19 Patients in Bangladesh with No Death: An Observational and Cohort Study

[Year:2020] [Month:January-June] [Volume:10] [Number:1] [Pages:5] [Pages No:31 - 35]

Keywords: Bangladesh, COVID-19, Management, Zero mortality

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10018-1316  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has been declared as pandemic by World Health Organization (WHO) with increasing morbidity (more than 4.6 million patients) and mortality (300,000 deaths). The world-wide target of management COVID-19 is to reduce complications with available management options; this become highly variable from country to country and even within different regions of the same country. Aim and objective: This observational prospective study represents a single center study in which all patients in this cohort received almost similar medicines and care. Materials and methods: All patients in this cohort (N: 32) were positive for SARS-CoV-2 by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with variable presenting symptoms. The management strategy included Standard of Care (SoC) and administration of hydroxychloroquine and doxycycline. Out of 32 patients, 9 patients also received favipiravir. All patients were followed until they were discharged after negativity of SARS-CoV-2 confirmed by PCR on two consecutive occasions taken within 2 days. Results: No death has been recorded in this cohort of 32 patients within the study period. The average hospital staying duration was 13.9 days with a range of 8–21 days. All patients were discharged with improvement of subjective symptoms and SARS-CoV-2 negativity. The vital signs (pulse, blood pressure) as well as and levels of electrolyte and blood counts were within normal and acceptable ranges at the time of discharge. Conclusion: The study presented here provide and evidence of a real-life situation of management of limited numbers of COVID-19 patients at a tertiary center of Bangladesh. This study inspires optimism that proper diagnosis, establishment of effective inclusion and exclusion criteria, ensuring application of proper SoC with drugs available in Bangladesh may be a practical option for management of COVID-19 in the country.



Gokben Ozbey, Emma Sproston, Alfizah Hanafiah

Helicobacter pylori Infection and Gastric Microbiota

[Year:2020] [Month:January-June] [Volume:10] [Number:1] [Pages:6] [Pages No:36 - 41]

Keywords: Gastric microbiota, Helicobacter pylori, Stomach

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10018-1310  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Owing to its strong acid production, the stomach was known to be a bacteria-free organ for many years. On the other hand, the presence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and other acid-resistant microbiota that are to persist in the stomach challenged this. It is now recognized that the existence of H. pylori and non-H. pylori species have been linked to the improvement of gastric disease; despite this, there is little published data on the interaction of gastric bacterial flora and the resultant effect on gastric health. The stomach has a unique microbiota including five major phyla, such as Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Fusobacteria and Bacteroidetes. These phyla are identified in both H. pylori-infected and uninfected persons. The resident gastric microflora may mediate the role of H. pylori in the gastric diseases. This article aims to review previous studies that examine the impact of H. pylori infection and the effect of resident gastric microbiota on gut health and disease conditions.



Anıl Çolaklar, Stephen J Lehnert, Temel Tirkes

Benign Hepatic Nodules Mimicking Hepatocellular Carcinoma in the Setting of Fontan-associated Liver Disease: A Case Report

[Year:2020] [Month:January-June] [Volume:10] [Number:1] [Pages:3] [Pages No:42 - 44]

Keywords: Congenital heart disease, Fontan procedure, Imaging features, Liver lesion

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10018-1315  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Fontan procedure, in which systemic circulation is redirected into pulmonary circulation by a baffle, is a palliative surgical strategy for patients born with single ventricle congenital heart disease. Hemodynamic changes secondary to Fontan procedure, also termed as Fontan physiology, result in end-organ damage, especially of the liver. Fontan-associated liver disease (FALD) represents a spectrum of pathologies ranging from mild liver fibrosis to advanced liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Hepatic nodules, some of which have been documented as HCC in several case series and reports, are a recognized complicated feature of FALD. Herein, we report a case with benign hepatic nodules mimicking HCC by imaging characteristics, emphasizing the fact that arterially enhancing lesions with delayed washout appearance may reflect benign regenerative or focal nodular hyperplasia-like nodules in patients with Fontan physiology.



Iyad Khamaysi, Eisa Hajj

Rescuing the Rescuer: Fractured Dormia Basket and a Second Basket Rescue Technique

[Year:2020] [Month:January-June] [Volume:10] [Number:1] [Pages:2] [Pages No:45 - 46]

Keywords: Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, Fractured Dormia Basket, Rescue

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10018-1314  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Mechanical lithotripsy is one of the well-known rescue methods for impacted common bile duct (CBD) stones. A fractured Dormia basket with a captured stone is an unusual complication and poses a special management problem. In the past, surgical intervention was the standard method. Various nonsurgical techniques have been reported. If the impaction is at the level of the papilla, extending the sphincterotomy might be sufficient. Stent insertion, endoscopic mechanical lithotripsy, extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy, endoscopic laser lithotripsy, and transhepatic choledochoscopic lithotripsy have all been reported. In this case, we used a second basket, which is readily available and less expensive, as a rescue technique.



AKM Faizul Huq, Md Fashiur Rahman, Md Azizul Islam, Syed A Iqbal, Azizur Rahman, Syed Abul Hassan Md Abdullah, Muhammad AR Bhuyan, Nuzhat Choudhury, Reema A Alia, Mohammad H Uddin, Sunan B Islam, Musarrat Mahtab, Sheikh MF Akbar

Therapeutic Endoscopy during COVID-19 Pandemic: An Observational Study from Bangladesh

[Year:2020] [Month:January-June] [Volume:10] [Number:1] [Pages:3] [Pages No:47 - 49]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10018-1318  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 



Sclerosing Angiomatoid Nodular Transformation of the Spleen: An Uncommon Cause of Abdominal Pain

[Year:2020] [Month:January-June] [Volume:10] [Number:1] [Pages:1] [Pages No:50 - 50]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10018-1319  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


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