Introduction: Gastrointestinal (GI) tract is the most common site of extranodal lymphoma accounting for 30–40% of the cases. In Western countries, stomach is the most common site of GI lymphoma, whereas in the Middle East and Mediterranean countries, small intestine is commonly involved. Studies about primary intestinal lymphoma (PIL) are heterogeneous in anatomical distribution, presentation, and histological subtypes. The present study was aimed at studying the anatomical distribution, histological subtypes, and clinical characteristics at tertiary care centers.
Materials and methods: The present study was retrospective, conducted between 2006 and 2020. Patient\'s data were collected from institutional medical records. PIL was diagnosed by Lewin\'s criteria. After histological diagnosis, PIL was classified as per the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria and staging was done according to the Ann Arbor classification as modified by Musshoff.
Results: A total of 941 lymphoma cases were diagnosed during the study period between 2006 and 2020 consisting of 238 Hodgkin\'s lymphoma and 703 non-Hodgkin\'s lymphoma (NHL) cases. PIL constituted 5.8% of all lymphoma cases (55 out of 941) and 50.9% (55 of 108) of all primary GI lymphoma. Median age at diagnosis was 44 years and comprised predominantly males (85.45%). Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma were the most common histological subtype (78%) seen. Two patients with primary Hodgkin\'s lymphoma involving the intestine were seen. T-cell lymphoma was seen in three (5.4%) patients. Ileocecal region was the most common site involved (27%). The common presenting complaints were intestinal obstruction (40%) requiring surgical resection and abdominal pain (32%). Majority of the patients presented in the early stages (I and II).
Conclusion: Our study demonstrates the pattern of distribution and various histological subtypes of PIL including the rare variants like primary intestinal Hodgkin\'s lymphoma. Relatively more number of patients presented with intestinal obstruction requiring surgery in comparison with other studies.
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