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VOLUME 13 , ISSUE 2 ( July-December, 2023 ) > List of Articles


Standard and Extended Thromboprophylaxis in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Literature Review

Sidharth Harindranath, Jijo Varghese, Shivaraj Afzalpurkar, Suprabhat Giri

Keywords : Crohn's disease, Inflammatory bowel disease, Ulcerative colitis, Venous thromboembolism

Citation Information : Harindranath S, Varghese J, Afzalpurkar S, Giri S. Standard and Extended Thromboprophylaxis in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Literature Review. Euroasian J Hepatogastroenterol 2023; 13 (2):133-141.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10018-1401

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 26-12-2023

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2023; The Author(s).


Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), both Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, frequently experience venous thromboembolism (VTE), a potentially fatal consequence. The pathophysiological mechanisms contributing to VTE include inflammation, modifications in coagulation factors, endothelial dysfunction, and platelet activation. Numerous pro-inflammatory cytokines and markers, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6, have a significant impact on the thrombotic cascade. Patients with IBD are more likely to suffer VTE for a variety of causes. Exacerbations of preexisting conditions, admission to the hospital, surgical intervention, immobilization, corticosteroid usage, central venous catheterization, and hereditary susceptibility all fit into this category. The mainstay of therapy for VTE in IBD patients includes anticoagulation that is individualized for each patient depending on the thrombosis site, severity, bleeding risk, and interaction with other drugs. In some high-risk IBD patients, such as those having major surgery or hospitalized with severe flare, preventive anticoagulation may play a role. However, the acceptance rate for this recommendation is low. Additionally, there is a subset of patients who would require extended thromboprophylaxis. The majority of the studies that looked into this question consisted of patients in the surgical setting. Emerging data suggest that risk factors other than surgery can also dictate the duration of anticoagulation. While extending anticoagulation in all patients may help reduce VTE-related mortality, identifying these risk factors is important. Hence, the decision to initiate prophylaxis should be individualized, considering the overall thrombotic and bleeding risks. This review explores the relationship between IBD and VTE, including risk factors, epidemiology, and prevention. A multifactorial approach involving aggressive management of underlying inflammation, identification of modifiable risk factors, and judicious use of anticoagulant therapy is essential for reducing the burden of VTE in this vulnerable population.

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