Euroasian journal of hepato-gastroenterology

Register      Login

VOLUME 13 , ISSUE 2 ( July-December, 2023 ) > List of Articles

Original Article

Efficacy and Safety of Prunus mume and Choline in Patients with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

Nazish Butt, Muhammad Masood, Aamir Ali

Keywords : Choline, Fatty liver, Lipid profile, Liver enzymes, Nonalcoholic liver diseases, Prunus mume

Citation Information : Butt N, Masood M, Ali A. Efficacy and Safety of Prunus mume and Choline in Patients with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease. Euroasian J Hepatogastroenterol 2023; 13 (2):124-127.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10018-1397

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 26-12-2023

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2023; The Author(s).


Aim: The primary objectives of this study include evaluating changes in lipid profile and liver enzyme levels in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients receiving Prunus mume and choline supplementation (Revolic). Materials and methods: Two-hundred patients were recruited from the hepatology outpatient department of a public hospital between January and June 2023. Patients who had confirmed diagnosis of NAFLD, proven with ultrasound (US) followed by biopsy or US alone with age >18 years were included in this study. The study variables were fasting blood sugar, cholesterol levels, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), triglyceride, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and gamma-glutamyl transferase levels (GGT). All investigations were conducted and compared between baseline, 12 and 24 weeks following treatment. Results: The mean age of all participants was 40.49 ± 10.59 years with 34 males and 166 females. The mean cholesterol levels were reduced to 179.86 ± 35.63 mg/dL from the mean baseline of 197.57 ± 42.52 mg/dL (p = 0.001). There was also a statistically significant difference found between baseline and posttreatment levels of LDL and triglyceride (p < 0.001). The ATL levels were also reduced from baseline 44.91 ± 32.40 U/L to 44.25 ± 30.66 and 41.06 ± 22.15 U/L between 12 and 24 weeks after treatment respectively. There was a statistically significant reduction in ATL, AST, and GGT levels from baseline with p-value < 0.001. Conclusion: The combination of P. mume and choline (Revolic) gives promising results with a significant reduction in lipid profile and liver enzymes. Clinical significance: The combination of P. mume and choline can be considered a reliable option for the management of NAFLD due to its efficacy and safety at 24 weeks after treatment as evident in the present study.

  1. Adams LA, Angulo P. Treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Postgrad Med J 2006;82(967):315–322. DOI: 10.1136/pgmj. 2005.042200.
  2. Singh S, Osna NA, Kharbanda KK. Treatment options for alcoholic and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: A review. World J Gastroenterol 2017;23(36):6549–6570. DOI: 10.3748/wjg.v23.i36.6549.
  3. Rinella ME, Sanyal AJ. Management of NAFLD: A stage-based approach. NatRev Gastroenterol Hepatol 2016;13(4):196–205. DOI: 10.1038/nrgastro.2016.3.
  4. Friedman SL, Neuschwander-Tetri BA, Rinella M, et al. Mechanisms of NAFLD development and therapeutic strategies. Nat med 2018;24(7):908–922. DOI: 0104-9.
  5. Stefan N, Häring HU, Cusi K. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: Causes, diagnosis, cardiometabolic consequences, and treatment. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol 2019;7(4):313–324. DOI: 10.1016/S2213-8587(18)30154-2.
  6. Tian T, Cao H, Farag MA, et al. Current and potential trends in the bioactive properties and health benefits of Prunus mume Sieb Et Zucc: A comprehensive review for value maximization. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2023;63(24):1–7. DOI:
  7. Fan JG, Cao HX. Role of diet and nutritional management in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2013;28:81–87. DOI: 10.1111/jgh.12244.
  8. Karavia EA, Kypreos KE. Pharmacological management of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: Limitations, challenges and new therapeutic. J Atherosclerosis Prev Treat 2019;10(1):28–37. DOI: 10.53590/japt.02.1001.
  9. Sagiadinou EC, Karavia EA, Xepapadaki E, et al. Benefits of a fixed-dose combination of standardized P. Mume extract with choline on adipose tissue mitochondrial metabolic activity and pancreatic β-islet secretory capacity in mice. Phytomedicine Plus 2022;2(3):100317. DOI:
  10. Pan JH, Lee KY, Kim JH, et al. Prunus mume Sieb Et Zucc. fruit ameliorates alcoholic liver injury in mice by inhibiting apoptosis and inflammation through oxidative stress. Journal of Functional Foods 2016;25:135–148. DOI:
  11. Beretta A, Accinni R, Dellanoce C, et al. Efficacy of a standardized extract of prunus mume in liver protection and redox homeostasis: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Phytother Res 2016;30(6):949–955. DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5597.
  12. Buchman AL, Ament ME, Sohel M, et al. Choline deficiency causes reversible hepatic abnormalities in patients receiving parenteral nutrition: Proof of a human choline requirement: A placebo-controlled trial. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 2001;25(5):260–268. DOI: 10.1177/0148607101025005260.
  13. Hokari A, Ishikawa T, Tajiri H, et al. Efficacy of MK615 for the treatment of patients with liver disorders. World J Gastroenterol 2012;18(31):4118–4126. DOI: 10.3748/wjg.v18.i31.4118.
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.