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VOLUME 12 , ISSUE 1 ( January-June, 2022 ) > List of Articles
Nishat Akbar, Arz Muhammad, Muhammad Danish, Muhammad Adeel, Shoaib A Khan, Hina Ismail, Imdad Ali, Muhammad Q Panezai, Munir Tareen, Abbas A Tasneem, Syed M Laeeq, Farina Hanif, Nasir H Luck
Keywords : Demographics, Gallbladder, Gallbladder cancer
Citation Information : Akbar N, Muhammad A, Danish M, Adeel M, Khan SA, Ismail H, Ali I, Panezai MQ, Tareen M, Tasneem AA, Laeeq SM, Hanif F, Luck NH. A Tertiary Care Center's Experience with Clinicopathological Characteristics of Gallbladder Carcinoma in Our Population. Euroasian J Hepatogastroenterol 2022; 12 (1):35-39.
License: CC BY-NC 4.0
Published Online: 13-07-2022
Copyright Statement: Copyright © 2022; The Author(s).
Introduction: Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is the most common malignant biliary tract tumor with the shortest survival from the time of diagnosis. This poor prognosis is due to the destructive biologic behavior of GBC, lack of sensitive screening tests for early detection, and vague nature of first presentation. Here in this study, we will evaluate the baseline characteristics of the patients presenting with gallbladder carcinoma in our population. Materials and methods: This retrospective study was conducted in the Department of Gastroenterology at Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation (SIUT), Karachi. Patient data were compiled and composed from the in-patient health records, radiology, and operational records. Those patients with suspicion of GBC, but negative at histology, or patients having inconclusive radiologic findings, were excluded. Baseline characteristics were recorded. Results were presented as means ± SD for quantitative data or as numbers with percentages for qualitative data. Continuous variables were analyzed using the Student's t-test, while categorical variables were analyzed using the Chi-square test. A p-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: A total of 162 patients were included in our study. Among them, 101 (62.3%) were females. Hypertension was the most common comorbid illness noted in 29 (17.9%) patients while 91 (56.2%) patients had no concurrent comorbidities. Most common risk factor for carcinoma of gallbladder was gallstones seen in 106 (65.1%) patients. The most common presenting complaint was combination of obstructive jaundice, weight loss with right hypochondrial pain seen in 66 (40.7%) patients. On CT abdomen, direct liver infiltration without lymphovascular invasion was noted in 77 (47.5%) patients followed by liver infiltration along with lymphovascular invasion in 26 (16%) patients and distant metastasis in 24 (14.8%) patients. On gallbladder (GB) mass biopsy, 58 (35.8%) patients had well-differentiated, 46 (28.4%) had moderately differentiated, while 33 (20.4%) had poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. Of 162 patients, 103 (63.6%) patients underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). The most common finding on ERCP was proximal common bile duct (CBD) stricture with intrahepatic biliary system dilatation which was noted in 95 (58.6%) patients. Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC) was performed only in 9 (5.6%) patients. Seventeen (10.5%) patients were managed by simple cholecystectomy, 39 (24.1%) patients underwent extended cholecystectomy, 14 (8.6%) patients underwent chemotherapy, while 102 (56.8%) patients were given palliative management. When followed for 1 year, 101 (62.3%) patients died within 6 months. Conclusion: The baseline characteristics, biopsy findings, modes of treatment, and rates of 1 year mortality were studied in patients with gallbladder carcinoma in our population. Advanced age, high white blood cell counts, and serum bilirubin at presentation with low lymphocyte count and presence of comorbid illnesses were the factors independently associated with increased mortality in patients with gallbladder carcinoma. However, further studies with large sample size and stratification with respect to age, gender, and different variables can be done in terms of mortality in patients with gallbladder carcinoma.