Euroasian journal of hepato-gastroenterology

Register      Login

VOLUME 12 , ISSUE 1 ( January-June, 2022 ) > List of Articles

Original Article

Euphorbia neriifolia Leaf Juice on Mild and Moderate COVID-19 Patients: Implications in OMICRON Era

Md Enayet Ali Pramanik, M Morsed Zaman Miah, Istiak Ahmed, AZM Mostaque Hossain, M Nowshad Ali, Md Jawadul Haque, AKM Monoarul Islam, Rukhshana Akhter Jahan, Md Enamul Haque, Md Munzur Rahman, Md Sofikul Islam, Md Mahidul Alam, Prabir Mohan Basak, Ahmed Masiha Jamil, Sk Md Abdullah Al Mamun, Md Rezaul Islam, Md Masudur Rahman, HNM Shafikuzzaman, Md Ariful Alam Suman, Md Mozammel Hoq Badol, Mosfiqur Rahman, Md Sharif Hasan, Md Nazrul Islam Mondal, Md Mamun Kabir, Mohammad Motiur Rahman, Humayra Haque

Keywords : Coronavirus disease-2019, Euphorbia neriifolia, Mild and moderate COVID-19, Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2

Citation Information : Pramanik ME, Miah MM, Ahmed I, Hossain AM, Ali MN, Haque MJ, Islam AM, Jahan RA, Haque ME, Rahman MM, Islam MS, Alam MM, Basak PM, Jamil AM, Al Mamun SM, Islam MR, Rahman MM, Shafikuzzaman H, Suman MA, Badol MM, Rahman M, Hasan MS, Mondal MN, Kabir MM, Rahman MM, Haque H. Euphorbia neriifolia Leaf Juice on Mild and Moderate COVID-19 Patients: Implications in OMICRON Era. Euroasian J Hepatogastroenterol 2022; 12 (1):10-18.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10018-1367

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 13-07-2022

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2022; The Author(s).


Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) has shattered the public health delivery system of most of the countries of the world. COVID-19 displays variable clinical presentations. The severe COVID-19 represents a fulminant pathological condition and most of the patients run a downhill course if extensive medical measures are not adopted. The major challenges about COVID-19 are related to develop strategies to manage huge populations of mild and moderate cases of COVID-19 with two realistic purposes: (1) early negativity of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus and (2) arrest of progression of moderate COVID-19 patients from developing severe complications. Although several medications have been repurposed for these purposes, none of these have passed the test of time in global perspective. Thus, there remains a pressing need to develop new and novel innovative management strategies for these patients as new variants of SARS-CoV-2 have been destroying the normal public health delivery system of different countries from time to time. The study presented here has checked the safety and efficacy of a herbal medication, leaves of Euphorbia neriifolia Linn (E. neriifolia), in mild and moderate COVID-19 patients. Sixty patients (30 mild COVID-19 and 30 moderate COVID-19) were enrolled in the study. Fifteen mild COVID-19 patients received standard of care (SOC) management, and the remaining 15 patients received SOC plus E. neriifolia. The moderate COVID-19 patients similarly received either SOC (N = 15) or SOC plus E. neriifolia (N = 15). Although there were marked diversity regarding biochemical parameters of these patients at entry, the moderate COVID-19 patients receiving E. neriifolia showed decrease in C-reactive protein and D-dimer and increase in oxygen saturation 7 days after trial commencement. However, these improvements were not detected in moderate COVID-19 patients receiving SOC. Hospital staying was significantly lower in both mild and moderate COVID-19 patients receiving SOC plus E. neriifolia than those receiving only SOC. Taken together, it may be proposed that usage of E. neriifolia may have beneficial effects regarding management for COVID-19 patients, especially for those in developing and resource-constrained countries, although a conclusive statement may not be given due to small sample size. This herbal medication is also pertinent in the context of emergence of OMICRON variant of COVID-19 as the overload of SARS-CoV-2-infecetd patients may be addressed considerably by this medication without hospitalization, if proper communication between patients and physicians can be ensured.

PDF Share
  1. Yang Y, Peng F, Wang R, et al. The deadly coronaviruses: the 2003 SARS pandemic and the 2020 novel coronavirus epidemic in China. J Autoimmun 2020;109:102434. DOI: 10.1016/j.jaut.2020.102434.
  2. de Groot RJ, Baker SC, Baric RS, et al. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV): announcement of the Coronavirus Study Group. J Virol 2013;87(14):7790–7792. DOI: 10.1128/JVI.01244-13.
  3. Zhu N, Zhang D, Wang W, et al. China Novel Coronavirus Investigating and Research Team. A novel coronavirus from patients with pneumonia in China. N Engl J Med 2020;38:727–733. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa2001017.
  4. Coronaviridae Study Group of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. The species severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus: classifying 2019-nCoV and naming it SARS-CoV-2. Nat Microbiol 2020;5(4):536–544. DOI: 10.1038/s41564-020-0695-z.
  5. WHO announces COVID-19 outbreak a pandemic. Available from: [Accessed on January 10, 2022].
  6. Lauring AS, Hodcroft EB. Genetic variants of SARS-CoV-2-what do they mean? Journal of the American Medical Association 2021;325(6): 529–531. DOI: 10.1001/jama.2020.27124.
  7. Kannan S, Shaik Syed Ali P, Sheeza A. Omicron (B.1.1.529)–variant of concern–molecular profile and epidemiology: a mini review. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2021;25(24):8019–8022. DOI: 10.26355/eurrev_202112_27653.
  8. COVID live-coronavirus statistics-worldmeter. Available from: sxsrf=AOaemvJ0Mc9dhy-GyF107csQXWL3CN3VlA%3A1641609022714&source=hp&ei=PvfYYcTgKIr90gTB7I-YAw&iflsig=ALs-wAMAAAAAYdkFTsKwc0i0g0X-r8BsoDqG-vjLqUnR&oq=Corona &gs_lcp=Cgdnd3Mtd2l6EAEYADIECCMQJzIECCMQJzIECCM QJzIECAAQQzIFCAAQkQIyBAgAEEMyBAgAEEMyBAgAEEMyB QgAEIAEMgUIABCABDoLCC4QgAQQxwEQ0QM6BAguEENQAFjwC2C3H2gAcAB4AIABbogBxASSAQM1LjGYAQCgAQE&sclient=gws-wiz [Accessed on January 10, 2022].
  9. WHO: Testing, tracing must be ‘backbone’ of coronavirus response. Available from: [Accessed on January 10, 2022].
  10. Avoid the 3Cs-Prime Minister of Japan and his Cabinet. Available from: =AOaemvKHHw8qSf9mfdUz2e8DctmRlcZhYw%3A1641609396214&ei=tPjYYaG8DKm1mAW29YGQDw&ved=0ahUKEwih5q7Hj6H1AhWpGqYKHbZ6APIQ4dUDCA8&uact=5&oq=3C+by+Japan &gs_lcp=Cgdnd3Mtd2l6EAMyBggAEBYQHjoECCMQJzoLCC4Q xwEQ0QMQkQI6BQguEJECOgUILhCABDoFCAAQgAQ6Cwgu EIAEEMcBEKMCOgUIABCRAjoECAAQQzoLCC4QgAQQx wEQ0QM6CwguEIAEEMcBEK8BOggIABAWEAoQHkoECEEYA EoECEYYAFAAWJ4XYLYaaABwAngAgAF-iAGjCJIBAzcuNJgBAKABAcABAQ&sclient=gws-wiz [Accessed on January 10, 2022].
  11. Do lockdowns actually work? Gavi, the vaccine alliance. Available from: work?gclid=CjwKCAiA5t-OBhByEiwAhR-hm6ndviXauyfPWLt XJ0U5olzbzpE9XzotsHw3J5FM8VeUtNbKfRuiMhoCEZIQA vD_BwE [Accessed on January 10, 2022].
  12. WHO official-COVID-19 vaccine updates-latest updates. Available from: &sxsrf=AOaemvI3jVSBVE46fhsC6MRluN4S2VRROw%3A1641609616274&ei=kPnYYa-WEJDt0AT5xamgDg&ved=0ahUKE wivnqawkKH1AhWQNpQKHfliCuQQ4dUDCA8&uact=5&oq =Vaccines+for+SARS-CoV-2&gs_lcp=Cgdnd3Mtd2l6EAMyBQgAEI AEOgQIIxAnOgUIABCRAjoFCC4QgAQ6BAgAEEM6BAguEEM6Cg gAEIAEEIcCEBQ6BwgAEMkDEEM6CAgAEIAEEMkDOgYIABAW EB5KBAhBGABKBAhGGABQAFiPOWCZPGgAcAJ4AIABeIgB0BCSAQ QxOC41mAEAoAEBwAEB&sclient=gws-wiz [Accessed on January 10, 2022].
  13. FaizulHuq A, Rahman MF, Islam MA, et al. Real-life management strategy of COVID-19 patients in Bangladesh with no death: an observational and cohort study. Euroasian J Hepatogastroenterol 2020;10(1):31–35. DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10018-1316.
  14. Pan H, Peto R, Henao-Restrepo AM, et al. WHO Solidarity Trial Consortium. Repurposed antiviral drugs for COVID-19–interim WHO solidarity trial results. N Engl J Med 2021;384(6):497–511. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa2023184.
  15. Ahiahonu PWK, Goodenowe DB. Triterpenoids from leaves of Elaeophorbia drupifera. Fitoterapia 2007;78(5):337–341. DOI: 10.1016/j.fitote.2007.02.002.
  16. Akihisa T, Yamamoto K, Tamura T, et al. Triterpenoid ketones from Lingnaniachungii McClure: Arborinone, friedelin, and glutinone. Chem Pharmaceut Bull 1992;40:789–791. DOI: 10.1248/CPB.40.789.
  17. Anonymous. The wealth of India, a dictionary of Indian raw materials and industrial products (Raw materials). vol. III (D–E). New Delhi: Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants; 2003. p. 226–228.
  18. Bigoniya P, Rana AC. Subacute effect of Euphorbia neriifolia Linn. on hematological, biochemical and antioxidant enzyme parameters of rat. Acad J Plant Sci 2009;2(4):252–259. ISSN: 1995-8986.
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.