Euroasian Journal of Hepato-Gastroenterology

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VOLUME 12 , ISSUE 1 ( January-June, 2022 ) > List of Articles

Original Article

The Association of Preoperative Risk Factors for Laparoscopic Conversion to Open Surgery in Elective Cholecystectomy

Erik Hanson-Viana, Edwin A Ayala-Moreno, Luis H Ortega-Leon, Eduardo E Montalvo-Javé

Keywords : Cholecystectomy, Conversion, Conversion to open surgery, General, Laparoscopic, Laparoscopy, Risk factors cholecystectomy, Surgery

Citation Information : Hanson-Viana E, Ayala-Moreno EA, Ortega-Leon LH, Montalvo-Javé EE. The Association of Preoperative Risk Factors for Laparoscopic Conversion to Open Surgery in Elective Cholecystectomy. Euroasian J Hepatogastroenterol 2022; 12 (1):6-9.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10018-1366

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 13-07-2022

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2022; The Author(s).


Abstract

Background: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is a common operation worldwide, with low mortality (0.01%) and morbidity (2–8%). It has been reported 2.9 to 3.2% of elective laparoscopic cholecystectomies are converted to open surgery. Converted cases are associated with increased complications rates. Method: Two thousand and seventy-five patients, 82.8% females and 17.2% males who underwent elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy in our hospital, between March 1, 2016, and February 28, 2018, were prospectively collected in a database. Pearson's Chi-squared and Fisher's exact tests were used to determine significance, with p <0.05 deemed statistically significant. We analyzed seven risk factors associated with conversion to open surgery; age, gender, body mass index (BMI), previous abdominal surgeries, the presence of contracted gallbladder, Mirizzi syndrome, or choledocholithiasis. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed using a 3-port technique (73%) and a 4-port technique (27%). Results: Finding associated “strong” factors to conversion: male patients, >60-years-old, previous upper abdominal surgery, contracted gallbladder, Mirizzi syndrome or choledocholithiasis. The presence of a higher or lower BMI did not influence the rate of conversion. The most impact association were males over 60 years, and males with an earlier upper abdominal surgery. Conclusion: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the gold standard for gallstones and gallbladder disease; however, inflammation, adhesions, and anatomic difficulty continue to challenge the use and safety of this approach in a small number of patients. This study identifies predictors of choice for open cholecystectomy. In view of the raised morbidity and mortality associated with open cholecystectomy, distinguishing these predictors will serve to decrease the rate of conversion and address these factors preoperatively.


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