Exchange Transfusion for Hyperbilirubinemia among Term and Near Term in NICU of a Tertiary Care Hospital of Bangladesh: Findings from a Prospective Study
Sanjoy K Dey, Sultana Jahan, Ismat Jahan, Mohammad S Islam, Mohammad KH Shabuj
Exchange transfusion, Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia, Prospective observational study, Term and near-term neonate
Citation Information :
Dey SK, Jahan S, Jahan I, Islam MS, Shabuj MK. Exchange Transfusion for Hyperbilirubinemia among Term and Near Term in NICU of a Tertiary Care Hospital of Bangladesh: Findings from a Prospective Study. Euroasian J Hepatogastroenterol 2021; 11 (1):21-26.
Background: Exchange transfusion in newborns is recommended as emergency management of hyperbilirubinemia to prevent bilirubin encephalopathy and kernicterus.
Aim: This study aimed to determine the frequency and document common side effects of exchange transfusion and outcomes of newborns requiring exchange transfusion.
Materials and methods: This prospective study was done in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Bangladesh, from January 2016 to December 2019. Information was obtained regarding maternal details, newborn demographics, and clinical status. Blood grouping and Rh typing were done for both mothers and newborns. In all newborns, pre-exchange complete blood count, peripheral blood film, Coombs test, reticulocyte count, serum bilirubin and post-exchange serum bilirubin, hemoglobin, random blood sugar, serum electrolyte, and calcium were done. G6PD level was done wherever suspected. Frequency, maternal and neonatal factors, indications, and outcomes were analyzed.
Results: Among 839 admitted cases of unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia, 41 patients (4.9%) required exchange transfusion. Most of the babies were inborn (90.2%). Ninety-five percent of mothers received regular antenatal care; among them, 76.3% had bad obstetric history. Only 36.6% of mothers received anti-D in previous pregnancy. None had sonographic findings of hydrops. The commonest indication was Rh incompatibility (80.5%). Coombs test was positive in 58.5% of cases. Mean pre-exchange TSB was 9.44 ± 6.4, and post-exchange TSB was 4.41 ± 2.59. The commonest adverse events noted were hyperglycemia (51.2%), sepsis (19.5%), anemia requiring top-up transfusion (17.1%), and hypocalcemia (14.6%). There were no catheter-related complications. Bilirubin encephalopathy was present in 4.9% of cases. There was one mortality but not due to the procedure.
Conclusion: Exchange transfusion was required among 4.9% of the admitted newborns with unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia. The common adverse effects were hyperglycemia and sepsis. The commonest indication was Rh incompatibility (80.5%). Overall outcome after exchange transfusion was favorable.
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