Introduction: Digestive organ cancer is a major public health issue both in Asia and in Mongolia. The most prevalent cancer-related deaths in Mongolia are registered as caused by the stomach, esophagus, and liver. There is a lack of study which investigated the accurate incidence of digestive organ cancer nationwide. Purpose: We aimed to investigate the incidence of stomach and esophageal cancers in Mongolian population. Materials and methods: Epidemiologic data were collected between 2009 and 2018 through the oncology departments of hospitals and medical centers in all provinces, soums (the smallest unit of provinces), and major districts of the capital city. We used appropriate statistical methods in SPSS software. Results: The incidence of esophageal cancer in last 10 years (2009–2018) was 10.09 in 100,000 populations and the highest incidence was registered in Uvs (38.13), Bayan-Ulgii (24.15), and Zavkhan (18.18) provinces, respectively. The incidence of stomach cancer was 20.33 in 100,000 populations and the highest incidences were registered in Uvs (53.01), Khovd (46.02), and Darkhan-Uul (40.50) provinces, respectively. Conclusion: The incidences of these cancers have increased last 10 years in some provinces. Stomach and esophageal cancers incidence in Mongolia is considerably higher compared to the other Asian countries. The nationwide targeted prevention program is needed.
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