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JAYPEE JOURNALS
International Scientific Journals from Jaypee
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1.  REVIEW ARTICLE
Epidemiology, Diagnosis, and Risk Factors of Helicobacter pylori Infection in Children
Gokben Ozbey, Alfizah Hanafiah
[Year:2017] [Month:January-June] [Volume:7 ] [Number:1] [Pages:115] [Pages No:34-39] [No of Hits : 543]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10018-1208 | FREE

ABSTRACT

H. pylori infection is a global public health problem associated with some gastrointestinal diseases in children, especially in developing countries, since prevalence of H. pylori is low in the developed world. Both noninvasive (stool antigen test, urea breath test, and blood test) and invasive (histology, rapid urease test, and microbiological culture) tests have been utilized to detect H. pylori infection. However, a single test is not reliable enough and does not provide accurate enough data to determine H. pylori infection among children. Risk factors of H. pylori infection in children were related to ethnicities, household properties, geographic location, living conditions, water sources, type of housing, presence/absence of sewage systems, and garbage collection within the living environment. These risk factors were usually associated with the socioeconomic status of the family. This review article aims to determine the gaps in the knowledge of the epidemiology, risk factors, and diagnostic tests of H. pylori infection among children.

Keywords: Children, Diagnostic tests, Epidemiology, Helicobacter pylori.

How to cite this article: Ozbey G, Hanafiah A. Epidemiology, Diagnosis, and Risk Factors of Helicobacter pylori Infection in Children. Euroasian J Hepato-Gastroenterol 2017;7(1):34-39.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None

 
2.  MINI REVIEW
Liver Disease in Sri Lanka
Hasitha S Wijewantha
[Year:2017] [Month:January-June] [Volume:7 ] [Number:1] [Pages:115] [Pages No:78-81] [No of Hits : 525]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10018-1217 | FREE

ABSTRACT

Liver disease in Sri Lanka is mainly due to alcoholic liver disease and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. In contrast to other South Asian countries, the prevalence of hepatitis B and C is low in Sri Lanka and prevalence of hepatitis A is intermediate. The few reported cases of hepatitis E in Sri Lanka are mainly in people who have traveled to neighboring South Asian countries. Wilson’s disease, autoimmune hepatitis, hemochromatosis, drug-induced liver disease, and primary biliary cirrhosis are recognized causes of liver disease in Sri Lanka. Pyogenic and amebic liver abscesses and dengue infection are the other causes of liver disease. Some of the commonly used plants as traditional herbal medicine in Sri Lanka have been shown to have deleterious effects on the liver in animal studies. Considering the high popularity of traditional herbal medicine in the country, it is likely that herbal medicine is an etiological factor for liver disease in Sri Lanka, but no published data are available.

Keywords: Causes of cirrhosis, Liver disease, Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, Viral hepatitis.

Address reprint requests to: Wijewantha HS. Liver Disease in Sri Lanka. Euroasian J Hepato- Gastroenterol 2017;7(1):78-81.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None

 
3.  ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Management of Liver Abscess in Children: Our Experience
Mukta Waghmare, Hemanshi Shah, Charu Tiwari, Kiran Khedkar, Suraj Gandhi
[Year:2017] [Month:January-June] [Volume:7 ] [Number:1] [Pages:115] [Pages No:23-26] [No of Hits : 524]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10018-1206 | FREE

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Liver abscess is common in pediatric population in India. Children have unique set of predisposing factors and clinical features. Liver abscesses are infectious, space-occupying lesions in the liver; the two most common abscesses being pyogenic and amebic. Its severity depends on the source of the infection and the underlying condition of the patient.

Materials and methods: A total of 34 patients less than 12 years were assessed in a retrospective study from January 2012 to 2016. Patients were assessed in terms of age of presentation, etiology, bacteriology, diagnosis, and modality of treatment.

Results: The mean age of presentation was 6.3 years. Average volume of abscess was 164 cc. Nine patients (26.4%) underwent percutaneous needle aspiration under ultrasound guidance with wide bore needle (18 G disposable needle). Three patients required more than two sittings of aspiration. Patients with volume more than 80 cc were treated with catheter drainage. Twenty patients (58.8%) underwent ultrasound-guided percutaneous catheter drainage. Two patients required catheter drainage for large abscess and needle aspiration for the smaller abscess.

Conclusion: Antimicrobial therapy along with percutaneous drainage constitutes the mainstay of treatment, whereas open surgical drainage should be reserved for selected cases.

Keywords: Catheter drainage, Liver abscess, Percutaneous aspiration, Predisposing factors.

How to cite this article: Waghmare M, Shah H, Tiwari C, Khedkar K, Gandhi S. Management of Liver Abscess in Children: Our Experience. Euroasian J Hepato-Gastroenterol 2017;7(1):23-26.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None

 
4.  ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Role of Clinical, Biochemical, and Imaging Parameters in predicting the Severity of Acute Pancreatitis
Dina Zerem, Omar Zerem, Enver Zerem
[Year:2017] [Month:January-June] [Volume:7 ] [Number:1] [Pages:115] [Pages No:1-5] [No of Hits : 504]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10018-1202 | FREE

ABSTRACT

Aim: The assessment of the severity of acute pancreatitis (AP) is important for proper management of the disease and for its prognosis. The aim was to correlate clinical, biochemical, and imaging diagnostic parameters and evaluate their prognostic values in the early assessment of severity of AP.

Materials and methods: We prospectively studied 128 consecutive patients with AP. The predictors were clinical, biochemical, and imaging diagnostic parameters. The outcome measure was the occurrence of complications. Abdominal sonogram, contrast-enhanced computer tomography, and pancreatitisspecific clinical and laboratory findings were done.

Results: According to the Atlanta classification, 84 patients (65.6%) had mild and 44 (34.4%) had severe AP. The severity markers were significantly different between the mild and the severe groups (p < 0.001). Leukocyte count, serum albumin level, C-reactive protein (CRP), Ranson, acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II (APACHE II), and Glasgow score were the factors associated with radiological severity grade. Leukocyte count, CRP, Ranson score, APACHE II, and Glasgow score were the factors associated with the number and appearance of acute fluid collections (AFCs). A significant association was found between the number of AFCs and the occurrence of complications [odds ratio 4.4; 95% confidence interval 2.5-7.6]. Hospital stay was significantly longer in the group with severe disease as compared with the group with mild disease (p < 0.001).

Conclusion: Clinical, biochemical, and imaging diagnostic parameters are related to the clinical course of AP and they can predict its severity. This allows us to determine the severity of the disease and to target the patients with high scores for close monitoring and more aggressive intervention.

Keywords: Acute pancreatitis, Clinical outcome, Complications, Computed tomography, Conventional transabdominal ultrasound, C-reactive protein.

How to cite this article: Zerem D, Zerem O, Zerem E. Role of Clinical, Biochemical, and Imaging Parameters in predicting the Severity of Acute Pancreatitis. Euroasian J Hepato-Gastroenterol 2017;7(1):1-5.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None

 
5.  MINI REVIEW
Hepatitis in Malaysia: Past, Present, and Future
Ruksana Raihan
[Year:2016] [Month:January-June] [Volume:6 ] [Number:1] [Pages:92] [Pages No:52-55] [No of Hits : 4529]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10018-1167 | Free

ABSTRACT

Malaysia is multiethnic, with a population of 31,127,247 comprising a mixture of Malays (50.1%), Chinese (22.6%), Indians (6.7%), Aborigines (11.8%), others (0.7%), and noncitizens (8.2%). Like other countries in the region, viral hepatitis is an important public health problem in Malaysia. The 3 most common causes for hepatitis in Malaysia are hepatitis A, B, and C. Hepatitis A has been a reportable disease in Malaysia since 1988. Due to the introduction of government control programs, the national incidence rate has dropped steadily. It is now estimated that 50% of Malaysians less than 30 years of age do not have antibodies to hepatitis A and are therefore susceptible to the disease, which can be prevented by reinforcing the hygiene status of the general population. Malaysia is a country of medium seroprevalence for the hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface antigen (HBsAg) in the general population (1.5-9.8%). The major route of transmission is from infected mother to fetus. There are an estimated 1 million people chronically infected with hepatitis B in Malaysia. Approximately 75% of all viral hepatitis cases are due to hepatitis B infection, with a male-to-female ratio of 2:1. Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) accounts for more than 80% of the hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cases seen in Malaysia and HCC is the 3rd most common malignant neoplasm and among the 10 leading causes of death. Most common genotypes are B and C. Incidence rates among Chinese, Malays, and Indians are 36, 26, and 15% respectively. The hepatitis B vaccination program for children was introduced in 1989, which successfully managed to reduce the seroprevalence of infection among Malaysians to 0.01% (graph 4, 2014). But the disease burden will still remain high for some time as the infected people are getting older and living longer. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a growing problem in Malaysia. An estimated 453,700 people were living with HCV infection in Malaysia in 2009 (2.5% of the population aged 15-64 years), of whom 59% acquired their infection through injection and the most common genotypes found are genotype 3 and 1. The HCV-related disease burden is already high and is forecast to rise steeply over the coming decades under current levels of antiviral treatment. Increased governmental resources to improve HCV screening and treatment rates and to reduce transmission are essential to address the high projected HCV disease burden in Malaysia.

Keywords: Future, Hepatitis, Malaysia, Past, Present.

How to cite this article: Raihan R. Hepatitis in Malaysia: Past, Present, and Future. Euroasian J Hepato-Gastroenterol 2016;6(1):52-55.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None

 
6.  MINI REVIEW
Viral Hepatitis in Indonesia: Past, Present, and Future
Mulyanto
[Year:2016] [Month:January-June] [Volume:6 ] [Number:1] [Pages:92] [Pages No:65-69] [No of Hits : 1329]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10018-1171 | Free

ABSTRACT

Since Indonesia is a huge archipelago country, the prevalence of hepatitis virus infection highly varies among islands. In average the prevalence of clinical hepatitis in Indonesia was 0.6% in the year 2007. Of 82 clinical acute hepatitis patients treated in hospitals in several cities, acute hepatitis A accounted for 28.0%, acute hepatitis B 13.4%, and acute hepatitis C 1.2%; 35.4% patients were infected by unknown etiology. In 1980s, the prevalence of anti-HAV in the age group 10- to 14-years was almost 100% in smaller towns and 45 to 60% in big cities. About 30 years later, anti-HAV prevalence decreased to around 13% in the same smaller town. Outbreaks of hepatitis A were reported between 2006 and 2009 in several cities in Java island. The prevalence of HBsAg in the islands other than Java island (8.5%) was significantly higher than in Java island (4.9%). In 1,409 viremic subjects, 4 genotypes of HBV were found, i.e., genotype B (60%), followed by genotype C (33%), genotype D (7%), and genotype A (0.3%). In contrast, the prevalence of hepatitis C was much higher in Java island compared to other islands. In blood donors in Java island, the prevalence of anti-HCV and HCV RNA were 1.5 and 1.1% respectively, while in other islands, the prevalence were only 0.7 and 0.2% respectively. Hepatitis D was very rare in Indonesia, and so was hepatitis E. Outbreaks of hepatitis E were reported between 1989 and 1993 in West Kalimantan. Afterward, the incidence of hepatitis E was reported sporadically.

Keywords: Epidemiology, HBsAg, HCV RNA, Indonesia.

How to cite this article: Mulyanto. Viral Hepatitis in Indonesia: Past, Present, and Future. Euroasian J Hepato-Gastroenterol 2016;6(1):65-69.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None

 
7.  MINI REVIEW
Viral Hepatitis in Nepal: Past, Present, and Future
Ananta Shrestha
[Year:2016] [Month:January-June] [Volume:6 ] [Number:1] [Pages:92] [Pages No:59-61] [No of Hits : 1240]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10018-1169 | Free

ABSTRACT

Over the last four decades, the diagnosis and therapy of viral hepatitis has evolved substantially all over the world. Although Nepal is a developing nation, it has been keeping pace with these developments in terms of the implementation of diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. However, because of a lack of infrastructure and logistics, Nepal still depends on its neighboring countries for molecular diagnostics in viral hepatitis B and C. Though most of the recent antivirals for hepatitis B and directly acting antivirals for hepatitis C are available at a highly subsidized cost, affordability still remains an issue. A lack of comprehensive national program for hepatitis B and C has been a major barrier for access to health care in patients with chronic viral hepatitis. Similarly, hepatitis E still remains an important public health issue with major epidemics at periodic intervals. Recent developments in understanding hepatitis E virus have unveiled important aspects of the virus, particularly with regard to why these epidemics occur. In this manuscript we try to elaborate the evolution in understanding, diagnosing, and treating viral hepatitis in Nepal.

Keywords: Hepatitis E, Kathmandu valley, Kinetic of hepatitis, Viral hepatitis.

How to cite this article: Shrestha A. Viral Hepatitis in Nepal: Past, Present, and Future. Euroasian J Hepato-Gastroenterol 2016;6(1):59-61.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None

 
8.  MINI REVIEW
Viral Hepatitis in Cambodia: Past, Present, and Future
Bun Sreng, Chhith Sophal, Sok Srun, Chham Samnang, Eng Huot
[Year:2016] [Month:January-June] [Volume:6 ] [Number:1] [Pages:92] [Pages No:45-48] [No of Hits : 1068]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10018-1165 | Free

ABSTRACT

The prevalence of viral hepatitis represents Cambodia as 1 of the highest endemic countries in the world. But the prevalence of viral hepatitis B among 5-year-olds is on a decreasing trend due to the effect of nationwide vaccination against hepatitis B. There are key interventions to address viral hepatitis by the Cambodian Ministry of Health. There are so far no comprehensive national guidelines for the prevention, care, and treatment of viral hepatitis.
In 2014, the coverage of hepatitis B vaccine at birth and HepB3 vaccine was very high, at 87 and 97% respectively. Other interventions include the screening of viral hepatitis B and C among blood donors; the enhancement of infection prevention and control at health facilities; the program for People Who Use Drugs (PWUDs) and People Who Inject Drugs (PWIDs); control and prevention of HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs); and improved sanitation, clean water, and food safety.
The diagnosis of viral hepatitis B and C could be made only at the national and provincial referral hospitals and there are no specific antiviral therapies for people who are infected with hepatitis B and C.

Keywords: Hep B vaccine, Infection prevention and control, People Who Inject Drugs (PWIDs), Viral hepatitis.

How to cite this article: Sreng B, Sophal C, Srun S, Samnang C, Huot E. Viral Hepatitis in Cambodia: Past, Present, and Future. Euroasian J Hepato-Gastroenterol 2016;6(1):45-48.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None

 
9.  MINI REVIEW
Past, Present, and Future of Viral Hepatitis in Bangladesh
Mamun-Al-Mahtab
[Year:2016] [Month:January-June] [Volume:6 ] [Number:1] [Pages:92] [Pages No:43-44] [No of Hits : 1014]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10018-1164 | Free

ABSTRACT

Viral hepatitis poses huge burden to the health care delivery system as well as to the economy of Bangladesh. Hepatitis E virus is the leading cause of acute hepatitis in this country, however with the improvement of economic status and sanitation this seems to be on the decline. Hepatitis B virus remains the leading cause in all forms of chronic liver diseases in this country. This virus has been extensively studied in Bangladesh, including from epidemiology to pathogenosis. Clinical trials with innovative therapy conducted in Bangladesh have shown promise. Hepatitis C virus follows hepatitis B virus as the second commonest cause of chronic liver diseases here. However patients in Bangladesh have started benefitting from the local generic versions of the newly introduced direct acting anti-virals.

Keywords: Bangladesh, Hepatitis B virus, Hepatitis C virus, Hepatitis E virus.

How to cite this article: Al-Mahtab M. Past, Present, and Future of Viral Hepatitis in Bangladesh. Euroasian J Hepato-Gastroenterol 2016;6(1):43-44.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None

 
10.  ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Reduced Glutathione suppresses Oxidative Stress in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
Makoto Irie, Tetsuro Sohda, Akira Anan, Atsushi Fukunaga, Kazuhide Takata, Takashi Tanaka, Keiji Yokoyama, Daisuke Morihara, Yasuaki Takeyama, Satoshi Shakado, Shotaro Sakisaka
[Year:2016] [Month:January-June] [Volume:6 ] [Number:1] [Pages:92] [Pages No:13-18] [No of Hits : 824]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10018-1159 | Free

ABSTRACT

Background and aims: Insulin resistance and cytokine production are key mechanisms leading to fatty change in the liver and may produce nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Oxidative stress may also contribute to clinical progression from simple fatty liver (FL) to NASH. A therapy for insulin resistance and antioxidant has been applied to treat NASH, yet these treatments are not fully established. In the present study, we have evaluated whether an antioxidant agent, glutathione, prevents the development of NASH from FL.

Materials and methods: Five patients with FL and 10 with NASH were enrolled in the study. Three hundred milligrams per day of glutathione was given orally to patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) every day, and an oxidative stress marker and biochemical tests were analyzed before treatment and 1 and 3 months after starting the treatment. We measured serum levels of 8-hydroxy- 2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT). Immunohistochemistry for glutathione was performed on formalin fixed liver specimens obtained from liver biopsies.

Results: Before treatment, the NASH group had higher serum 8-OHdG and lower serum glutathione levels than the FL group. Immunohistochemistry revealed that a strong expression of glutathione was observed in zone 3 in both NASH and FL before treatment. Serum levels of alanine transaminase and 8-OHdG were significantly decreased after treatment in the NASH group. Gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase was decreased after treatment, although the decrease was statistically not significant.

Discussion: The present pilot study demonstrated that antioxidant therapy with glutathione may reduce the pathological oxidative stress in the liver in NASH, preventing the progression from NAFLD to NASH.

Keywords: 8-Hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine, Gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase, Glutathione, Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.

How to cite this article: Irie M, Sohda T, Anan A, Fukunaga A, Takata K, Tanaka T, Yokoyama K, Morihara D, Takeyama Y, Shakado S, Sakisaka S. Reduced Glutathione suppresses Oxidative Stress in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease. Euroasian J Hepato-Gastroenterol 2016;6(1):13-18.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None

 
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