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International Scientific Journals from Jaypee
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1.  MINI REVIEW
Hepatitis in Malaysia: Past, Present, and Future
Ruksana Raihan
[Year:2016] [Month:January-June] [Volume:6 ] [Number:1] [Pages:92] [Pages No:52-55] [No of Hits : 3839]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10018-1167 | Free

ABSTRACT

Malaysia is multiethnic, with a population of 31,127,247 comprising a mixture of Malays (50.1%), Chinese (22.6%), Indians (6.7%), Aborigines (11.8%), others (0.7%), and noncitizens (8.2%). Like other countries in the region, viral hepatitis is an important public health problem in Malaysia. The 3 most common causes for hepatitis in Malaysia are hepatitis A, B, and C. Hepatitis A has been a reportable disease in Malaysia since 1988. Due to the introduction of government control programs, the national incidence rate has dropped steadily. It is now estimated that 50% of Malaysians less than 30 years of age do not have antibodies to hepatitis A and are therefore susceptible to the disease, which can be prevented by reinforcing the hygiene status of the general population. Malaysia is a country of medium seroprevalence for the hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface antigen (HBsAg) in the general population (1.5-9.8%). The major route of transmission is from infected mother to fetus. There are an estimated 1 million people chronically infected with hepatitis B in Malaysia. Approximately 75% of all viral hepatitis cases are due to hepatitis B infection, with a male-to-female ratio of 2:1. Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) accounts for more than 80% of the hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cases seen in Malaysia and HCC is the 3rd most common malignant neoplasm and among the 10 leading causes of death. Most common genotypes are B and C. Incidence rates among Chinese, Malays, and Indians are 36, 26, and 15% respectively. The hepatitis B vaccination program for children was introduced in 1989, which successfully managed to reduce the seroprevalence of infection among Malaysians to 0.01% (graph 4, 2014). But the disease burden will still remain high for some time as the infected people are getting older and living longer. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a growing problem in Malaysia. An estimated 453,700 people were living with HCV infection in Malaysia in 2009 (2.5% of the population aged 15-64 years), of whom 59% acquired their infection through injection and the most common genotypes found are genotype 3 and 1. The HCV-related disease burden is already high and is forecast to rise steeply over the coming decades under current levels of antiviral treatment. Increased governmental resources to improve HCV screening and treatment rates and to reduce transmission are essential to address the high projected HCV disease burden in Malaysia.

Keywords: Future, Hepatitis, Malaysia, Past, Present.

How to cite this article: Raihan R. Hepatitis in Malaysia: Past, Present, and Future. Euroasian J Hepato-Gastroenterol 2016;6(1):52-55.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None

 
2.  MINI REVIEW
Viral Hepatitis in Indonesia: Past, Present, and Future
Mulyanto
[Year:2016] [Month:January-June] [Volume:6 ] [Number:1] [Pages:92] [Pages No:65-69] [No of Hits : 1148]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10018-1171 | Free

ABSTRACT

Since Indonesia is a huge archipelago country, the prevalence of hepatitis virus infection highly varies among islands. In average the prevalence of clinical hepatitis in Indonesia was 0.6% in the year 2007. Of 82 clinical acute hepatitis patients treated in hospitals in several cities, acute hepatitis A accounted for 28.0%, acute hepatitis B 13.4%, and acute hepatitis C 1.2%; 35.4% patients were infected by unknown etiology. In 1980s, the prevalence of anti-HAV in the age group 10- to 14-years was almost 100% in smaller towns and 45 to 60% in big cities. About 30 years later, anti-HAV prevalence decreased to around 13% in the same smaller town. Outbreaks of hepatitis A were reported between 2006 and 2009 in several cities in Java island. The prevalence of HBsAg in the islands other than Java island (8.5%) was significantly higher than in Java island (4.9%). In 1,409 viremic subjects, 4 genotypes of HBV were found, i.e., genotype B (60%), followed by genotype C (33%), genotype D (7%), and genotype A (0.3%). In contrast, the prevalence of hepatitis C was much higher in Java island compared to other islands. In blood donors in Java island, the prevalence of anti-HCV and HCV RNA were 1.5 and 1.1% respectively, while in other islands, the prevalence were only 0.7 and 0.2% respectively. Hepatitis D was very rare in Indonesia, and so was hepatitis E. Outbreaks of hepatitis E were reported between 1989 and 1993 in West Kalimantan. Afterward, the incidence of hepatitis E was reported sporadically.

Keywords: Epidemiology, HBsAg, HCV RNA, Indonesia.

How to cite this article: Mulyanto. Viral Hepatitis in Indonesia: Past, Present, and Future. Euroasian J Hepato-Gastroenterol 2016;6(1):65-69.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None

 
3.  MINI REVIEW
Viral Hepatitis in Nepal: Past, Present, and Future
Ananta Shrestha
[Year:2016] [Month:January-June] [Volume:6 ] [Number:1] [Pages:92] [Pages No:59-61] [No of Hits : 1069]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10018-1169 | Free

ABSTRACT

Over the last four decades, the diagnosis and therapy of viral hepatitis has evolved substantially all over the world. Although Nepal is a developing nation, it has been keeping pace with these developments in terms of the implementation of diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. However, because of a lack of infrastructure and logistics, Nepal still depends on its neighboring countries for molecular diagnostics in viral hepatitis B and C. Though most of the recent antivirals for hepatitis B and directly acting antivirals for hepatitis C are available at a highly subsidized cost, affordability still remains an issue. A lack of comprehensive national program for hepatitis B and C has been a major barrier for access to health care in patients with chronic viral hepatitis. Similarly, hepatitis E still remains an important public health issue with major epidemics at periodic intervals. Recent developments in understanding hepatitis E virus have unveiled important aspects of the virus, particularly with regard to why these epidemics occur. In this manuscript we try to elaborate the evolution in understanding, diagnosing, and treating viral hepatitis in Nepal.

Keywords: Hepatitis E, Kathmandu valley, Kinetic of hepatitis, Viral hepatitis.

How to cite this article: Shrestha A. Viral Hepatitis in Nepal: Past, Present, and Future. Euroasian J Hepato-Gastroenterol 2016;6(1):59-61.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None

 
4.  MINI REVIEW
Viral Hepatitis in Cambodia: Past, Present, and Future
Bun Sreng, Chhith Sophal, Sok Srun, Chham Samnang, Eng Huot
[Year:2016] [Month:January-June] [Volume:6 ] [Number:1] [Pages:92] [Pages No:45-48] [No of Hits : 938]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10018-1165 | Free

ABSTRACT

The prevalence of viral hepatitis represents Cambodia as 1 of the highest endemic countries in the world. But the prevalence of viral hepatitis B among 5-year-olds is on a decreasing trend due to the effect of nationwide vaccination against hepatitis B. There are key interventions to address viral hepatitis by the Cambodian Ministry of Health. There are so far no comprehensive national guidelines for the prevention, care, and treatment of viral hepatitis.
In 2014, the coverage of hepatitis B vaccine at birth and HepB3 vaccine was very high, at 87 and 97% respectively. Other interventions include the screening of viral hepatitis B and C among blood donors; the enhancement of infection prevention and control at health facilities; the program for People Who Use Drugs (PWUDs) and People Who Inject Drugs (PWIDs); control and prevention of HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs); and improved sanitation, clean water, and food safety.
The diagnosis of viral hepatitis B and C could be made only at the national and provincial referral hospitals and there are no specific antiviral therapies for people who are infected with hepatitis B and C.

Keywords: Hep B vaccine, Infection prevention and control, People Who Inject Drugs (PWIDs), Viral hepatitis.

How to cite this article: Sreng B, Sophal C, Srun S, Samnang C, Huot E. Viral Hepatitis in Cambodia: Past, Present, and Future. Euroasian J Hepato-Gastroenterol 2016;6(1):45-48.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None

 
5.  MINI REVIEW
Past, Present, and Future of Viral Hepatitis in Bangladesh
Mamun-Al-Mahtab
[Year:2016] [Month:January-June] [Volume:6 ] [Number:1] [Pages:92] [Pages No:43-44] [No of Hits : 807]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10018-1164 | Free

ABSTRACT

Viral hepatitis poses huge burden to the health care delivery system as well as to the economy of Bangladesh. Hepatitis E virus is the leading cause of acute hepatitis in this country, however with the improvement of economic status and sanitation this seems to be on the decline. Hepatitis B virus remains the leading cause in all forms of chronic liver diseases in this country. This virus has been extensively studied in Bangladesh, including from epidemiology to pathogenosis. Clinical trials with innovative therapy conducted in Bangladesh have shown promise. Hepatitis C virus follows hepatitis B virus as the second commonest cause of chronic liver diseases here. However patients in Bangladesh have started benefitting from the local generic versions of the newly introduced direct acting anti-virals.

Keywords: Bangladesh, Hepatitis B virus, Hepatitis C virus, Hepatitis E virus.

How to cite this article: Al-Mahtab M. Past, Present, and Future of Viral Hepatitis in Bangladesh. Euroasian J Hepato-Gastroenterol 2016;6(1):43-44.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None

 
6.  ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Reduced Glutathione suppresses Oxidative Stress in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
Makoto Irie, Tetsuro Sohda, Akira Anan, Atsushi Fukunaga, Kazuhide Takata, Takashi Tanaka, Keiji Yokoyama, Daisuke Morihara, Yasuaki Takeyama, Satoshi Shakado, Shotaro Sakisaka
[Year:2016] [Month:January-June] [Volume:6 ] [Number:1] [Pages:92] [Pages No:13-18] [No of Hits : 683]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10018-1159 | Free

ABSTRACT

Background and aims: Insulin resistance and cytokine production are key mechanisms leading to fatty change in the liver and may produce nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Oxidative stress may also contribute to clinical progression from simple fatty liver (FL) to NASH. A therapy for insulin resistance and antioxidant has been applied to treat NASH, yet these treatments are not fully established. In the present study, we have evaluated whether an antioxidant agent, glutathione, prevents the development of NASH from FL.

Materials and methods: Five patients with FL and 10 with NASH were enrolled in the study. Three hundred milligrams per day of glutathione was given orally to patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) every day, and an oxidative stress marker and biochemical tests were analyzed before treatment and 1 and 3 months after starting the treatment. We measured serum levels of 8-hydroxy- 2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT). Immunohistochemistry for glutathione was performed on formalin fixed liver specimens obtained from liver biopsies.

Results: Before treatment, the NASH group had higher serum 8-OHdG and lower serum glutathione levels than the FL group. Immunohistochemistry revealed that a strong expression of glutathione was observed in zone 3 in both NASH and FL before treatment. Serum levels of alanine transaminase and 8-OHdG were significantly decreased after treatment in the NASH group. Gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase was decreased after treatment, although the decrease was statistically not significant.

Discussion: The present pilot study demonstrated that antioxidant therapy with glutathione may reduce the pathological oxidative stress in the liver in NASH, preventing the progression from NAFLD to NASH.

Keywords: 8-Hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine, Gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase, Glutathione, Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.

How to cite this article: Irie M, Sohda T, Anan A, Fukunaga A, Takata K, Tanaka T, Yokoyama K, Morihara D, Takeyama Y, Shakado S, Sakisaka S. Reduced Glutathione suppresses Oxidative Stress in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease. Euroasian J Hepato-Gastroenterol 2016;6(1):13-18.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None

 
7.  MINI REVIEW
Viral Hepatitis in Pakistan: Past,Present, and Future
Amna Subhan Butt, Fatima Sharif
[Year:2016] [Month:January-June] [Volume:6 ] [Number:1] [Pages:92] [Pages No:70-81] [No of Hits : 586]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10018-1172 | Free

ABSTRACT

Viral hepatitis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and a rising cause for concern in Asian countries. Weather it is blood borne or water/food borne hepatotropic virus, increasing burden is alarming for Asian countries. In this review we have evaluated the existing data to estimate the burden of viral hepatitis in populations of all age groups nationwide, along with an assessment of the risk factors and preventive and management strategies currently employed in Pakistan. The aim of our work is to consolidate and supplement the present knowledge regarding viral hepatitis in light of past and present trends and to provide future direction to the existing health policies.

Keywords: Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B and C, Hepatitis E, Pakistan, Viral hepatitis.

How to cite this article: Butt AS, Sharif F. Viral Hepatitis in Pakistan: Past, Present, and Future. Euroasian J Hepato-Gastroenterol 2016;6(1):70-81.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None

 
8.  MINI REVIEW
Past, Present, and Future of Viral Hepatitis C in Japan
Hiroshi Yatsuhashi
[Year:2016] [Month:January-June] [Volume:6 ] [Number:1] [Pages:92] [Pages No:49-51] [No of Hits : 521]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10018-1166 | Free

ABSTRACT

Of all the industrialized countries of the world, Japan has the highest rate of hepatitis C. It also has 1 of the oldest and most varied histories of hepatitis C in the world among the industrialized modern nations. Hepatitis C and its complications are the leading cause of liver cancer in Japan. Japan has the highest rate of liver cancer among the industrialized countries. From 2004 to 2014, PegIFN/RBV treatment was the mainstream of hepatitis C treatment. In 2014, the first interferon-free therapy was approved in Japan. Subsequently, other interferon-free therapies have been approved. Hepatitis C virus disinfection in hepatitis C patients in Japan has become possible with a probability of 96% or more.

Keywords: Hepatitis C virus, Interferon-free therapy, Japan, Liver cancer.

How to cite this article: Yatsuhashi H. Past, Present, and Future of Viral Hepatitis C in Japan. Euroasian J Hepato-Gastroenterol 2016;6(1):49-51.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None

 
9.  ORIGINAL ARTICLE
The Evaluation of Serum Ascites Albumin Gradient and Portal Hypertensive changes in Cirrhotic Patients with Ascites
Forhad Hossain Md Shahed, Mamun-Al-Mahtab, Salimur Rahman
[Year:2016] [Month:January-June] [Volume:6 ] [Number:1] [Pages:92] [Pages No:8-9] [No of Hits : 510]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10018-1157 | Free

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Ascites is a common complication of chronic liver diseases and is related to the extent of portal hypertension. This study evaluated whether the serum ascites albumin gradient (SAAG) (the difference between the albumin level of serum and of ascitic fluid) is endowed with clinical implications.

Materials and methods: This is a prospective study involving 50 patients with cirrhosis of liver with ascites. The SAAG was measured in all patients and its relation with portal hypertensive changes was analyzed.

Results: Based on SAAG values, the patients were divided into three groups: Group 1 - SAAG value 1.1 to 1.49 gm/dL (n = 15); group 2 - SAAG value 1.5 to 1.99 gm/dL (n = 9); and group 3 - SAAG value 2.0 gm/dL (n = 26). In group 1, 14 patients had esophageal varices (93.3%) and 13 had gastropathy (86.6%). In group 2, all 9 patients had esophageal varices (100%), 7 (77.7%) had gastropathy, and 1 (11.1%) had gastric varices. In group 3, all 26 patients had esophageal varices (100%), 24 patients (92.3%) had gastropathy, and 1 patients (3.8%) had gastric varices.

Conclusion: Serum ascites albumin gradient value is weakly related to the extent of portal hypertension in patients with liver cirrhosis and its implication seems to be limited in clinics.

Keywords: Cirrhosis, Esophageal varices, Gastric varix, Portal hypertension gastropathy, Serum ascites albumin gradient.

How to cite this article: Shahed FHM, Al-Mahtab M, Rahman S. The Evaluation of Serum Ascites Albumin Gradient and Portal Hypertensive changes in Cirrhotic Patients with Ascites. Euroasian J Hepato-Gastroenterol 2016;6(1):8-9.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None

 
10.  MINI REVIEW
Epidemiology of Viral Hepatitis and Liver Diseases in Bangladesh
Mamun-Al-Mahtab
[Year:2015] [Month:January-June] [Volume:5 ] [Number:1] [Pages:66] [Pages No:26-29] [No of Hits : 811]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10018-1124 | FREE

ABSTRACT

Bangladesh is a South Asian country with a homogeneous population. However, some difference has been demonstrated in the distribution of liver disease in different parts of the country. Hepatitis E remains the principal cause of acute hepatitis in Bangladesh, while chronic liver disease in Bangladesh, including hepatocelullar carcinoma, is predominantly due to hepatitis B virus. Hepatitis B has been extensively studied and characterized in Bangladesh, and some major clinical trials with HBV-related antigens have also been conducted.

Keywords: Epidemiology, Viral hepatitis, Liver disease, Bangladesh.

How to cite this article: Al-Mahtab M. Epidemiology of Viral Hepatitis and Liver Diseases in Bangladesh. Euroasian J Hepato-Gastroenterol 2015;5(1):26-29.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None

 
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