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JAYPEE JOURNALS
International Scientific Journals from Jaypee
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1.  MINI REVIEW
Hepatitis in Malaysia: Past, Present, and Future
Ruksana Raihan
[Year:2016] [Month:January-June] [Volume:6 ] [Number:1] [Pages:92] [Pages No:52-55] [No of Hits : 1420]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10018-1167 | Free

ABSTRACT

Malaysia is multiethnic, with a population of 31,127,247 comprising a mixture of Malays (50.1%), Chinese (22.6%), Indians (6.7%), Aborigines (11.8%), others (0.7%), and noncitizens (8.2%). Like other countries in the region, viral hepatitis is an important public health problem in Malaysia. The 3 most common causes for hepatitis in Malaysia are hepatitis A, B, and C. Hepatitis A has been a reportable disease in Malaysia since 1988. Due to the introduction of government control programs, the national incidence rate has dropped steadily. It is now estimated that 50% of Malaysians less than 30 years of age do not have antibodies to hepatitis A and are therefore susceptible to the disease, which can be prevented by reinforcing the hygiene status of the general population. Malaysia is a country of medium seroprevalence for the hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface antigen (HBsAg) in the general population (1.5-9.8%). The major route of transmission is from infected mother to fetus. There are an estimated 1 million people chronically infected with hepatitis B in Malaysia. Approximately 75% of all viral hepatitis cases are due to hepatitis B infection, with a male-to-female ratio of 2:1. Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) accounts for more than 80% of the hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cases seen in Malaysia and HCC is the 3rd most common malignant neoplasm and among the 10 leading causes of death. Most common genotypes are B and C. Incidence rates among Chinese, Malays, and Indians are 36, 26, and 15% respectively. The hepatitis B vaccination program for children was introduced in 1989, which successfully managed to reduce the seroprevalence of infection among Malaysians to 0.01% (graph 4, 2014). But the disease burden will still remain high for some time as the infected people are getting older and living longer. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a growing problem in Malaysia. An estimated 453,700 people were living with HCV infection in Malaysia in 2009 (2.5% of the population aged 15-64 years), of whom 59% acquired their infection through injection and the most common genotypes found are genotype 3 and 1. The HCV-related disease burden is already high and is forecast to rise steeply over the coming decades under current levels of antiviral treatment. Increased governmental resources to improve HCV screening and treatment rates and to reduce transmission are essential to address the high projected HCV disease burden in Malaysia.

Keywords: Future, Hepatitis, Malaysia, Past, Present.

How to cite this article: Raihan R. Hepatitis in Malaysia: Past, Present, and Future. Euroasian J Hepato-Gastroenterol 2016;6(1):52-55.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None

 
2.  REVIEW ARTICLE
Current Concepts in Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Liver Transplantation: A Review and 2014 Update
Andrew Ofosu, Ahmet Gurakar
[Year:2015] [Month:January-June] [Volume:5 ] [Number:1] [Pages:66] [Pages No:19-25] [No of Hits : 565]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10018-1123 | FREE

ABSTRACT

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common cancer worldwide. Multiple treatment modalities for HCC are available, depending on size and number of tumor. Liver transplantation offers the most reasonable option for curative treatment, because it simultaneously removes the burden of the diseased liver. The Milan criteria currently remain the benchmark for the selection of patients with HCC for transplantation. However, there is considerable and promising interest in expanding the eligibility criteria to include the University of California San Francisco criteria. Liver transplantation (LT) has progressed during the past decade. The introduction of living donor LT has provided a means of expanding organ transplant, but with some inherent concerns. Herein, we reviewed the diagnosis and management of HCC with emphasis on the current concepts of liver transplantation for the treatment of HCC.

Keywords: Hepatocellular carcinoma, Liver transplantation, Milan criteria, University of California San Francisco criteria, Living donor liver transplantation.

How to cite this article: Ofosu A, Gurakar A. Current Concepts in Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Liver Transplantation: A Review and 2014 Update. Euroasian J Hepato-Gastroenterol 2015;5(1):19-25.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None

 
3.  MINI REVIEW
Epidemiology of Viral Hepatitis and Liver Diseases in Bangladesh
Mamun-Al-Mahtab
[Year:2015] [Month:January-June] [Volume:5 ] [Number:1] [Pages:66] [Pages No:26-29] [No of Hits : 565]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10018-1124 | FREE

ABSTRACT

Bangladesh is a South Asian country with a homogeneous population. However, some difference has been demonstrated in the distribution of liver disease in different parts of the country. Hepatitis E remains the principal cause of acute hepatitis in Bangladesh, while chronic liver disease in Bangladesh, including hepatocelullar carcinoma, is predominantly due to hepatitis B virus. Hepatitis B has been extensively studied and characterized in Bangladesh, and some major clinical trials with HBV-related antigens have also been conducted.

Keywords: Epidemiology, Viral hepatitis, Liver disease, Bangladesh.

How to cite this article: Al-Mahtab M. Epidemiology of Viral Hepatitis and Liver Diseases in Bangladesh. Euroasian J Hepato-Gastroenterol 2015;5(1):26-29.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None

 
4.  ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Evaluation of a Rapid One-step Real-time PCR Method as a High-throughput Screening for Quantification of Hepatitis B Virus DNA in a Resource-limited Setting
SM Rashed-Ul Islam, Munira Jahan, Shahina Tabassum
[Year:2015] [Month:January-June] [Volume:5 ] [Number:1] [Pages:66] [Pages No:11-15] [No of Hits : 559]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10018-1121 | FREE

ABSTRACT

Virological monitoring is the best predictor for the management of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections. Consequently, it is important to use the most efficient, rapid and cost-effective testing systems for HBV DNA quantification. The present study compared the performance characteristics of a one-step HBV polymerase chain reaction (PCR) vs the two-step HBV PCR method for quantification of HBV DNA from clinical samples. A total of 100 samples consisting of 85 randomly selected samples from patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and 15 samples from apparently healthy individuals were enrolled in this study. Of the 85 CHB clinical samples tested, HBV DNA was detected from 81% samples by one-step PCR method with median HBV DNA viral load (VL) of 7.50 × 103 IU/ml. In contrast, 72% samples were detected by the two-step PCR system with median HBV DNA of 3.71 × 103 IU/ml. The one-step method showed strong linear correlation with two-step PCR method (r = 0.89; p < 0.0001). Both methods showed good agreement at Bland-Altman plot, with a mean difference of 0.61 log10 IU/ml and limits of agreement of -1.82 to 3.03 log10 IU/ml. The intra-assay and interassay coefficients of variation (CV%) of plasma samples (4-7 log10 IU/ml) for the one-step PCR method ranged between 0.33 to 0.59 and 0.28 to 0.48 respectively, thus demonstrating a high level of concordance between the two methods. Moreover, elimination of the DNA extraction step in the one-step PCR kit allowed time-efficient and significant labor and cost savings for the quantification of HBV DNA in a resource limited setting.

Keywords: HBV DNA viral load, One-step PCR, Two-step PCR, Resource limited settings.

How to cite this article: Rashed-Ul Islam SM, Jahan M, Tabassum S. Evaluation of a Rapid Onestep Real-time PCR Method as a High-throughput Screening for Quantification of Hepatitis B Virus DNA in a Resource-limited Setting. Euroasian J Hepato-Gastroenterol 2015;5(1):11-15.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None

 
5.  MINI REVIEW
Epidemiology of Viral Hepatitis and Liver Diseases in Pakistan
Amna Subhan Butt
[Year:2015] [Month:January-June] [Volume:5 ] [Number:1] [Pages:66] [Pages No:43-48] [No of Hits : 557]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10018-1129 | FREE

ABSTRACT

Pakistan is among ten most populous countries in world. All sorts of hepatitis are highly prevalent in Pakistan. Due to lack of proper mechanisms to handle sewerage, disinfection and lack of clean water supply across the country, hepatitis A and E are endemic in Pakistan. Moreover, Pakistan ranked in intermediate prevalence zone for hepatitis B and C. Also, prevailing socioeconomic conditions, political statuses and unstable healthcare delivery system are not suitable for tackling further progression of hepatitis viruses and its complications. The notable factors related to epidemiology of different hepatitis viruses have been described in this communication.

Keywords: Hepatitis in Pakistan, Liver diseases in Pakistan, Hepatitis B and C in Pakistan.

How to cite this article: Butt AS. Epidemiology of Viral Hepatitis and Liver Diseases in Pakistan. Euroasian J Hepato-Gastroenterol 2015;5(1):43-48.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None

 
6.  Original Article
Distribution of Liver Disease in Bangladesh: A Cross-country Study
Salimur Rahman, Mohammad Faroque Ahmed, Mohammad Jamshed Alam, Chitta Ranjan Debnath, Mohammad Izazul Hoque, Muhammad Mahbub Hussain, AKM Shamsul Kabir, Mohammad Fazal Karim, Faiz Ahmed Khondokar, Mamun-Al-Mahtab, Mohammad Golam Masud, Mohammad Kutub Uddin Mollick, Ahmed Lutful Moben, Sheikh Mohammad Noor-E-Alam, Provat Kumar Podder, Aloke Kumar Raha, Mohammad Abdur Rahim, Mohammad Harun Or Rashid, KMJ Zaki, Sheikh Mohammad Fazle Akbar
[Year:2014] [Month:January-June] [Volume:4 ] [Number:1] [Pages:58] [Pages No:25-30] [No of Hits : 1698]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10018-1092 | FREE

ABSTRACT

Introduction: ‘Hepatology’, as an independent discipline of medical science, has recently been established in Bangladesh. The aim of this study was to formulate the distribution of pattern of liver diseases in this country.

Materials and methods: In this retrospective study, data regarding patients of liver diseases from the seven different administrative divisions of Bangladesh between January 2012 and 2013 were compiled.

Results: The study included 59,227 patients (age ranged 15-95 years). Majority of the patients were males (67.9%). Although all patients appeared at the department of hepatology, 13.2% were diagnosed with liver diseases, but a vast majority of patients (77.35%) were suffering from nonulcer dyspepsia or irritable bowel syndrome. Patients with liver diseases were mostly suffering from chronic liver diseases (CLDs) (37 - 69%). Complication of CLD, like hepatic encephalopathy, was less frequent in regions with better healthcare system. Nonviral infections, like liver abscess and biliary ascarisis, were not uncommon. Acute hepatitis was another very common entity and contributed to approximately 20% cases.

Conclusion: This study provides insight about heterogeneous distribution pattern of liver diseases in different regions of Bangladesh.

Keywords: Bangladesh, Distribution pattern, Liver diseases.

How to cite this article:Rahman S, Ahmed MF, Alam MJ, Debnath CR, Hoque MI, Hussain MM, Shamsul Kabir AKM, Karim MF, Khondokar FA, Mahtab MA, Masud MG, Mollick MKU, Moben AL, Noor- E-Alam SM, Podder PK, Raha AK, Rahim MA, Rashid MHO, Zaki KMJ, Akbar SMF. Distribution of Liver Disease in Bangladesh: A Cross-country Study. Euroasian J Hepato-Gastroenterol 2014;4(1):25-30.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None declared

 
7.  Original Article
Hepatoprotective and Antioxidant Effect of Mangifera Indica Leaf Extracts against Mercuric Chloride-induced Liver Toxicity in Mice
Muthupillai Karuppanan, Manigandan Krishnan, Pavankumar Padarthi, Elangovan Namasivayam
[Year:2014] [Month:January-June] [Volume:4 ] [Number:1] [Pages:58] [Pages No:18-24] [No of Hits : 1468]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10018-1091 | FREE

ABSTRACT

Background: To explore the antioxidant and hepatoprotective effect of ethanolic Mangifera indica (EMI) and methanolic Mangifera indica (MMI) leaf extracts in mercuric chloride (HgCl2) induced toxicity in Swiss albino mice.

Materials and methods: Toxicity in mice was induced with HgCl2 (5.0 mg/kg, i.p.), followed by oral intervention with EMI and MMI extracts (25 mg and 50 mg/kg. body wt.) for 30 days. Results and discussion: The extent of liver damage was assessed from the extents of histopathological, morphological, antioxidant and liver enzymes. Mercuric chloride-induced mice showed an increased cellular damage whereas leaf extracts of EMI and MMI-treated mice showed recovery of damaged hepatocytes. Mercuric chloride intoxicated mice exhibited a significant (p < 0.05) elevation in the liver enzymes (Aspartate amino transferase and Alanine amino transferase) and gradual decline in the cellular radical scavenging enzyme levels (Catalase, Glutathione-s-transferase and Glutathione peroxidase. The combined treatment with EMI and MMI leaf extracts significantly (p < 0.05) reversed these parameters. However, the effects of MMI leaf extract (50 mg/kg) were superior to those of EMI- treated mice possibly due to its potent radical scavenging property. These results suggest that oral supplementation of Mangifera indica extract remarkably reduces hepatotoxicity in mice possibly through its antioxidant potentials.

Keywords: Mangifera indica, Mercuric chloride, Free radicals, Liver enzymes, Antioxidant.

How to cite this article:Karuppanan M, Krishnan M, Padarthi P, Namasivayam E. Hepatoprotective and Antioxidant Effect of Mangifera indica Leaf Extracts against Mercuric Chloride-induced Liver Toxicity in Mice. Euroasian J Hepato-Gastroenterol 2014;4(1):18-24.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None

 
8.  Mini Review
Pathophysiology of Greedy Colon and Diabetes: Role of Atropine in worsening of Diabetes
Rohit Gundamaraju, Ravichandra Vemuri
[Year:2014] [Month:January-June] [Volume:4 ] [Number:1] [Pages:58] [Pages No:51-54] [No of Hits : 1310]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10018-1096 | FREE

ABSTRACT

Greedy colon which is a synonym of constipation is a serious condition in the human body which may lead to complications, like damage of the rectal tissue, cellular dehydration and colorectal cancer. Diabetes mellitus, although a systemic disease with diverse clinical symptoms, is also related with cellular dehydration. Understanding the pathophysiological aspects of diabetes mellitus and greedy colon may shed light in the management of either of these conditions. The main purpose of this article is to demonstrate an association of tissue dehydration during diabetes mellitus and constipation. The adverse side effects of atropine will be discussed due to its M3 blockage effect and reduction in peristalsis keeping in mind the importance of these facts in the context of public health importance, especially in geriatric health.

Keywords: Diabetes, Greedy colon, Constipation, Atropine, Public health.

How to cite this article:Gundamaraju R, Vemuri R. Pathophysiology of Greedy Colon and Diabetes: Role of Atropine in worsening of Diabetes. Euroasian J Hepato-Gastroenterol 2014;4(1):42-45.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None declared

 
9.  CASE REPORT
Low Grade Appendiceal Mucinous Neoplasm with Pseudomyxoma Peritonei: An Enigma for Pathologist
Shagufta Qadri, Kiran Alam, Feroz Alam, Veena Maheshwari
[Year:2014] [Month:July-December] [Volume:4 ] [Number:2] [Pages:61] [Pages No:113-116] [No of Hits : 1270]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10018-1115 | FREE

ABSTRACT

Malignant mucinous neoplasms of the appendix is an infrequently encountered entity. Extraappendiceal spread of these tumor is one of the commonest etiology of pseudomyxoma peritonei, which demands a hightened vigilance in their early diagnosis. Although low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasms (LAMNs) largely stay confined to the appendix, but they can spread to the peritoneum as pseudomyxoma peritonei leading to an unpredictable outcome. Due to the rare occurrence of low-grade appendiceal neoplasm only tenuous and limited information is present in the medical literature. We report a case of LAMN with pseudomyxoma peritonei in a 45-year-old male, who presented with the complaints of abdominal distension associated with abdominal pain and constipation. Clinical examinations and computed tomography (CT) scan were suggestive of pseudomyxoma peritonei. Peroperative findings and histopathological examination rendered a conclusive diagnosis of low-grade appendiceal neoplasm.

Keywords: Appendix, Mucinous neoplasm, Pseudomyxoma peritonei, Adenocarcinoma.

How to cite this article: Qadri S, Alam K, Alam F, Maheshwari V. Low Grade Appendiceal Mucinous Neoplasm with Pseudomyxoma Peritonei: An Enigma for Pathologist. Euroasian J Hepato- Gastroenterol 2014;4(2):113-116.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None

 
10.  Original Article
Impact of the Immunogen Nature on the Immune Response against the Major HBV Antigens in an HBsAg and HLA-humanized Transgenic Mouse Model
M Mancini-Bourgine, G Guillen, ML Michel, JC Aguilar
[Year:2014] [Month:January-June] [Volume:4 ] [Number:1] [Pages:58] [Pages No:36-44] [No of Hits : 1202]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10018-1094 | FREE

ABSTRACT

Hepatitis B chronic carriage remains as a major public health problem. Protein and DNA vaccines are now widely used in therapeutic vaccine candidates. Although, the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) based vaccines have been largely studied, candidates comprising both HBsAg and core (HBcAg) either protein- or DNA-based approaches deserve further immunological characterization.

In the present study, a repeated dose administration schedule for protein or DNA immunogens was conducted in order to characterize the resulting immune response in a humanized and HBsAg-tolerized setting. A novel transgenic (Tg) mice that express the HBsAg, human MHC class I (HLA-A*0201) and MHC class II (HLA-DRB1*01) molecules and devoid of endogenous murine class I and II molecules was used as a model of HBV chronic carrier. Mice were immunized by subcutaneous (protein) or intramuscular (DNA) routes and the humoral and cellular responses were evaluated.

Protein or DNA immunization induced humoral immune responses against both HBsAg and HBcAg. The systematic analysis of epitopes that activate CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes confirmed the accuracy of the model. Cellular immune responses were detected differing in their nature. CD8 T-cell responses were induced mostly after DNA immunization while CD4 T-cell responses were predominant in protein based immunizations. In addition, the intensity of HLA-A2-restricted CD8+ T cell responses was reduced in Tg mice expressing HBsAg when compared to control Tg mice.

In conclusion, our results indicate that cellular immune responses necessary for the development of protective immunity can be achieved by DNA or protein immunization. However, important differences in their nature arise when immunogens are administered several times.

Keywords: Immunogen, Transgenic mice, HBsAg, HBV, HBcAg, Humoral immunity, Cellular immunity.

How to cite this article: Mancini-Bourgine M, Guillen G, Michel ML, Aguilar JC. Impact of the Immunogen Nature on the Immune Response against the Major HBV Antigens in an HBsAg and HLAhumanized Transgenic Mouse Model. Euroasian J Hepato-Gastroenterol 2014;4(1):36-44.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None declared

 
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